Saturday, August 31, 2019
Identify and explain current evidence based approaches to understanding children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the integration of best research evidence with practice expertise and the values of service users and carers. Firstly, when looking at best practice strategies in our setting it is evident that a number of theorists have had much impact on how we interact and engage children in their learning and development. Theorists focused on cognitive development such as Piaget and Vygotsky stressed the importance of the social environment in helping children realise their potential. Whilst behaviourists like Skinner believed that children learn/develop through consequences and reinforcements after an initial behaviour. Other theorists, like Freud and Maslow, examined the influence of personality and motivation as factors that influence our behaviour. Bandura further highlighted the value of social interactions. These studies and research have helped shape and model much of how we operate in the support we give children in their development and learning. EBP in infant, toddler, and early childhood psychology has the potential to improve the health of an increasingly diverse community by focusing on the needs of the youngest, most vulnerable members of society and the families charged with their care and nurturance. Although infant and early childhood psychology may seem like a narrow and specific area, evidence-based practice with young children and their families is vitally important, considering the broad implications for future long and short-term developmental outcomes There are many specific reasons for school psychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ current interest in infants, toddlers, and young children. For example, Premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants, especially very low birth weight (< 1500 grams), present unique challenges for early intervention since LBW is often a precursor for a myriad of developmental, medical, sensory, and learning difficulties. We use observations and next steps within my setting as evidence based approach to understanding a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Using evidence seen such as Ã¢â¬â a child gets unsettled with transitions during the daily routine Ã¢â¬â how can we useÃ this evidence to best plan for the child. I.e. Ã¢â¬â in future give advance warning to any changes in the routine and offer support and comfort at times they find difficult thus the child growing in confidence. As a practitioner we apply knowledge to a situation that has been previously researched which allows us to make a well informed decision about future actions. Every day practise can be influenced by what we have learnt or found out from research, media, and colleagues. Professional practise is keeping up to date with these findings and using them to deliver best practise (using evidence and findings). Within my setting we also understand and respect the importance of all agencies communicating and sharing information and evidence to see the Ã¢â¬Ëwhole childÃ¢â¬â¢ using this evidence to shape our practise and how we plan between each other for the best of the child.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Macbeth is a five act tragic play, which was written by William Shakespeare for King James I in1607. It took the world by storm and today it is one of the best known tragedies available. Since it is so worthy of praise, in this essay, I am going to do a character analysis of Macbeth, the protagonist in this play. I will be evaluating how MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition and determination to be king, eventually drags him to his downfall. Despite, he is the hero the main character; Macbeth is not introduced in the first two scenes. As William Shakespeare uses this as a theatrical device to create suspense and arouse curiosity in the audience. He does this by introducing other characters in these two scenes always speak about Macbeth. For example, one of the witches says, Ã¢â¬ËThere to meet with MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢. This makes the audience curious about what they are going to do to him. Furthermore they make the King and bleeding sergeant speak of his bravery and skill, making him liked already. The dramatist Shakespeare additionally uses mythological language to glorify Macbeth. For instance the Bleeding Sergeant describes Macbeth by calling him Ã¢â¬ËValourÃ¢â¬â¢s minionÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËBellonaÃ¢â¬â¢s bride groomÃ¢â¬â¢. Since Bellona is the Roman Goddess of war, Shakespeare is saying that Macbeth is a lover of war and is therefore a good soldier. Valour is courage and by calling him Ã¢â¬ËValourÃ¢â¬â¢s minionÃ¢â¬â¢ he shows that he is fearless and courageous. The hero, Macbeth, was a victim of circumstance. He is firstly influenced by the three witches in act one scene three. They convince Macbeth that he has the right traits to become a king. This is exceedingly significant as this sets the path for MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall. Another main influence on Macbeth is none other than his dearly love Lady Macbeth. She does this by questioning his manhood in act one scene seven, Ã¢â¬Ëand lives a coward in thine own esteemÃ¢â¬â¢. Moreover when Macbeth asks her to do it, she convinces him to murder King Duncan by saying why she cannot do it as he reminds her of her own father. During times that the play Macbeth was written, the king was considered a delegate of God. The point that Shakespeare uses King Duncan as a theatrical device is worthy of note. King Duncan description of Macbeth, before his introduction, as, Ã¢â¬Ëworthy gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëvaliant cousinÃ¢â¬â¢, shows that even God is on his side. Getting praise from a demi-god shows the importance of Macbeth in that society and he may even be a role model for people at that time. One main character in the play that shows MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s real personality is Lady Macbeth. The first time in the play that she does this is when she receives his letter, Ã¢â¬ËTis too full of the milk of human kindnesses. By doing this she shows that under all the heroic traits he is also kind and gentle. So, the audience feel even more amazed at him. Being his closest person, she always knows how to instigate him to do something. She shows this when she convinces him to kill King Duncan. Although this may seem to some people like she is the vamp in play, she is in fact only thinking for the betterment of her husband. This shows she is a loyal wife and thus shows how worthy Macbeth would have to be to get such a devoted partner. As every tragic hero, Macbeth has one human flaw, which in his case is his vaulting ambition. This shows that every person has a flaw, even a hero. For, if it was not for his ambition to be king, then none of the tragedies would have occurred. This gives the audience the moral lesson, which is that too much ambition can in turn harm a person rather than benefit them, but the right amount is good as was shown before when Macbeth was considered good. Even though Macbeth is considered a villain by the audience towards the end of the play, he redeems his honour and pride when he goes to fight, He still dies a hero. His redemption starts when he calls for his armour and says, Ã¢â¬ËAt least we shall die with our harness on our backsÃ¢â¬â¢. The point that even when all odds are against him, he still acts like a true soldier by trying to fight of the army, which is obviously worthy of praise. It is also worthy to note that at this point in time, when he is near his death, he begins to repent for all he has done, and this means that the audience now feels sorry for him and this is how he regained their respect. To conclude, my analysis, I would to praise William Shakespeare for his fine use of descriptive language and theatrical devices, which are expertly thought out to please the audience at the time, and also to glorify his hero, even on his death.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Ã¯Â»Â¿Did the Republican Party from 1877 to 1896 abandon its earlier principles and succumb to expediency? Essay
The Gilded Age was a big change for both Democrat and Republican parties. Both sides started changing tactics to stay in power, but one was more prominent. The Republican Party in the Gilded Age did drop abandon their earlier principles because of the Compromise of 1877 and getting votes. The Compromise of 1877 was the time that the Republican Party really abandoned their principles. This compromise allowed the Republicans to take the presidential office by withdrawing federal troops from the South. Due to this deal, the Democrats reclaimed power in the South, while the Republicans remained in power in both the Senate and the White House. In doing so, they did sacrifice their goals of complete southern Reconstruction in order to win the election. Former slaves lost all federal protection and conditions in the South were returned to a state only marginally better than slavery. However, before ending reform efforts, the Republicans did manage to improve social and economic conditions for African Americans living in the South. These efforts, although not completely establishing reform, did lay down the foundation to future change. This first step ensured that the Republicans, while stopping major projects, continued their previous intentions in a small way. Another reason Republicans succumbed to was their need to win. In the Gilded Age, politicians stopped talking about major important issues of the day and instead focused on getting the vote by appealing to the masses without making any enemies. Fresh from the Civil War, the Republicans won election into the White House the majority of elections in this time period by dropping to a level of personal attacks against the South and the people within it (waving the Ã¢â¬Å"bloody shirtÃ¢â¬ ). On top of these campaign and party tactics, the Republican Party was split significantly prior to the election of Garfield between Ã¢â¬Å"HalfbreedsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Stalwarts.Ã¢â¬ The conflicts between these two factions and the greedy desire for government spoil positions not only led to political strife, but also led to the assassination of President Garfield shortly after his election. So all in all, the Republican Party did abandon their policies in order to stay in power. They stopped trying to address the issues and instead just appealed for votes. They also dropped to personal attacks just to win. The Republican Party in the Gilded Age did drop abandon their earlier principles because of the Compromise of 1877 and getting votes.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
African-Americans Struggle to End Segregation - Research Paper Example The issue of racial inequality that typecast African Americans through time continues to be controversial in nature and perspectives. Diverse scholars, historians and philosophers have delved into the historical travails of African Americans since these people have felt not only isolation, but the more drastic prejudice and discrimination due to color and roots of existence. The rich legacy of the story of struggles and triumphs of this race in American history is, in itself, a remarkable feat. In this regard, the aim of the current research is to provide an opportunity to analyze a major social, economic, military, and technological issue since the Civil War, trace its significance over time, and examine the ways in which it contributed to an Ã¢â¬Å"ending of isolationÃ¢â¬ in the United States. Accordingly, a central theme of this course is the Ã¢â¬Å"end of isolationÃ¢â¬ which the textbook describes in relationship to technology, politics, military, culture, and society. At times, the ending of isolation has resulted of periods of tension and struggle. In this regard, the essay will describe the historical context of each question within the topic and trace the significance of this issue over time from 1865 to the present. Further, the discourse would present an assessment of the challenges involved in the ending of this isolation, as well as the key people involved in the struggles. The essay would hereby proffer pertinent highlights of African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit and determination.... Further, the discourse would present an assessment of the challenges involved in the ending of this isolation, as well as the key people involved in the struggles. The essay would hereby proffer pertinent highlights of African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit and determination in ending of isolation through time. Historical Background August (2009) has clearly indicated that to understand racial inequality, there is a need to trace the roots of oppression in America. As averred, Ã¢â¬Å"race and racial inequality have powerfully shaped American history from its beginnings. Americans like to think of the founding of the American colonies and, later, the United States, as driven by the quest for freedom Ã¢â¬â initially, religious liberty and later political and economic liberty. Yet, from the start, American society was equally founded on brutal forms of domination, inequality and oppression which involved the absolute denial of freedom for slavesÃ¢â¬ (August, 2009, p. 1). The mindset of the white race typecast African Americans then, as slaves, and therefore inferior and subordinate. Lawson (2010) emphasized that Ã¢â¬Å"racial segregation was a system derived from the efforts of white Americans to keep African Americans in a subordinate status by denying them equal access to public facilities and ensuring that blacks lived apart from whitesÃ¢â¬ (Lawson, 2010, par. 1). As expounded, before the Civil Rights movement, African Americans were geographically located only in the Northern and Upper Southern parts of the United States. Further, there was a Supreme Court ruling under Ã¢â¬Å"Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) that African Americans were not U.S. citizens, northern whites had excluded blacks from seats on public
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Specific public policy case in USA during the government shutdown - Essay Example The issue of national security in the United States is one of the most sensitive issues. After the Twin towers were attacked in 2001 security policies were given priority over other policies during appropriation of funds by the legislature (Campbell, 2008). However, as the national security stabilizes and the country becomes more and more secure many proponents are of the opinion that the appropriation has now become too much in comparison with its contribution to the status of the national security (Klein, 2013). Some legislators, in the events leading to the government shutdown, were proposing a cut, while others were of the opinion that the move to cut on military expenditure will only prove costly in the long run. This paper will discuss the government shutdown of 2013 and then go ahead to explore the US security policies using several sociological and political theories to analyze the key themes of the policy and ponder on the future developments and the alternative course of ac tion. The paper will also employ the Eugene Bardach policy analysis model to bring out the contentious issues and their possible alternatives. The Bacchi model will also be integrated to problematize the issue and discuss the presumptions of the policies. The US Government Shutdown The United States of America operates under a federal system of government. This government offers a wide range of public services in the areas of health, education, social security, medical, insurance and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s security while the other services are offered by the individual states to the citizens. For it to offer these services, it needs funds, which are allocated to each of its department by the legislature. The last government shutdown took place in 2013 under the President Obama administration from October 1 to October 17 when a bill was signed. A shutdown of the federal government happens when there is no Appropriation bill that has been signed that allocates the various government dep artments to continue spending funds (Bill, 2013). These funds are allocated at the start of a fiscal year and when the year ends if there has not been any more appropriation from the Congress, and then the government has to shut down because of the funding gap that is created. The 2013 government shutdown took place because the Republicans, and the Democrats could not agree on the funding of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, popularly known as Obamacare. This act was signed into law in 2010 but has created deep divisions in the House of Representatives and the Congress. The Republicans who are controlling the House of Representatives want to cut the spending, and the amount allocated to this policy whereas the Congress which is dominated by the Democrats did not support the cut. This confrontation led to the shutdown as the House of Representative passed a bill that had suggested a funding cut which was rejected by the Congress (Steinhauser, 2013). The main reason behi nd the Republicans proposing a cut in spending is because the government deficit in budget had already hit 15.7%, and the International Monetary Fund was already considering not lending the US government any more funds because of their rising debt levels; the credibility of borrowing was in question. During the 16-day shutdown, however, the Congress continued passing specific bills that addressed specific policies, which were then signed by
International operation and risk management of ICAP plc - Essay Example The company is a public limited company and is listed on the London Stock Exchange. The company was founded in the year 1986 and has more than 5000 employees who provide the risk services in the company. The company focuses mainly on the key principles of leadership, Integrity, entrepreneurship as well as respect for control. Performance - Financial Trend A ratio analysis has been conducted for ICAP in order to understand the financial performance of the company. Ratio Analysis Ã Ã 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1.026 1.004 1.003 1.002 0.999 Ã Ã 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Cash Ratio 0.089 0.017 0.016 0.025 0.014 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Profitability Ratio Gross Profit Margin 0.990 0.989 0.984 0.765 - Ã Ã 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Operating Profit Margin 0.145 0.160 0.163 0.176 0.191 Ã Ã 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Net profit Margin 0.030 0.083 0.109 0.074 0.117 Leverage Ratio Debt Ratio 0.939 0.985 0.984 0.981 0.966 Ã Ã 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Debt Equity Ratio 15.31 66.19 60.37 48.89 28.68 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Profitabilty Indicator Ratio Return on Assets 0.09% 0.17% 0.49% 0.24% 0.55% Ã Ã 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Return on Capital Employed 0.41% 0.33% 0.40% 0.58% 1.78% Liquidity The current ratio of the company has increased by 22% over the last one year from 1.004 in 2012 to 1.026 in the financial year 2013. The inventory of the company for all the years is equal to zero. This means that for ICAP the current ratio and the quick ratio are the same (Atrill and Mclaney, 2008, pp. 142-178). The increase in the current ratio means that the company has efficient cash management and that the company can meet its short term debt obligations quite comfortably (Kieso, Weygandt and Warfield, 2007, p. 738). Thus ICAP has sound liquidity position. Profitability The profitability levels of the company can be estimated from the profitability ratios as shown in the table above. The gross profit margin for the compa ny has increasing steadily from 2011 to 2012 and then from 2012to 2013. The gross profit margin for the year 2013 is 0.939 which means that the company has been able to use the different resources that it has in the most appropriate way (Williams, Haka, Bettner and Carcello, 2008, p. 266). Source: ICAP 2013, p. 03 The operating profit margin for the company fell almost more than one percent in the year 2013. Thus it shows that the company has not been able to achieve economies of scale for the last one year but the steady figure over the years reflects the efficiency of the company in maintaining the scale of operations (Gallagher, 2003, pp. 94Ã¢â¬â95). The different compositions of the operating profit of ICAP as per the different businesses have been shown in the dough nut chart as above. This means that most of the operations of the company are equally prosperous and has been able to achieve the desired scale of operations for the long term (Weston and Brigham, 1990, p. 295). The return on assets for the company is 0.09% in 2013 as compared to 0.017% in 2012 and 0.27% in 2011. Looking at the steady level of net income of the company it shows that the company has increased its assets over the phase of 3 years which has resulted in a declining ROA (Tracy, 2004, p. 173).
Monday, August 26, 2019
Exam question - Essay Example Restorative justice is less punitive than the traditional justice system which requires the offender to suffer some kind of fine or incarceration. Restorative justice focuses on the needs of the victim and the wider community. Instead of being punished alone, restorative justice focuses on getting the offender to take responsibility for his actions. In doing this, the victim might have to admit his guilt and take actions to either apologise to the victim or reinstate the victim in lieu of all the losses suffered. In other cases, the offender undergoes community service. The motive of restorative justice is to focus on the personal needs of the victim. Stated differently, the approach of sending offenders to jail and getting them to pay fines to the state does not seem to provide direct satisfaction to the victims. This is because it seems impersonal and the victim does not get any kind of restitution or reparation. However, in the case of restorative justice, the victim gets the oppo rtunity to be given what s/he lost in an offence. If it is not possible to give back, the offender might render an apology and promise not to do so again. This fosters communal relations and promotes reformation (b) What are the aims of Restorative Justice? The Crown Prosecution Service outlines three main aims of restorative justice. The first aim is to promote victim satisfaction. In other words, there is evidence that the traditional approach of criminalising offences and imprisoning offenders does not seem to satisfy victims. Rather, it only keep the offenders away and there is no contact between them and victims. Restorative justice provides a system of reducing fear and tensions between the victim and the perpetrator. Also, in a sense, the apology of the victim and compensation [which is not a feature of traditional courts] can satisfy a victim emotionally. In another sense, the compensation or restitution paid by a victim can prove to be helpful in assisting victims to get ba ck to their former position. The second aim of restorative justice is to foster some form of engagement between the victim and perpetrator. The idea is to provide an important platform through which the victim can tell the perpetrator what he things. Also, the perpetrator can accept his guilt, and apologise for his part in the situation. The victim becomes aware of his actions and the consequences. Through, this he voluntarily accepts the obligation to do something for the victim and community in order to make amends. This makes the whole process of punishment more personal and constructive. The third aim of restorative justice is that it creates community capital. In other words, it enables the community to get a win-win criminal justice system in which people are punished adequately and proportionately. Also, offenders are made aware of the scope of their actions and this prevents them from reoffending. In this sense, the community builds some degree of confidence in the justice s ystem and makes them fell more secured and protected by the law. 2. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Restorative Justice (taking account of the variety of Ã¢â¬ËstakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ who are, or might be, affected by it)? There are some advantages of restorative justice. First of all, restorative justice improves the outcome of court's decision because the victims get the chance to
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Small Business Plan - Essay Example The tag line or the mission statement of the hotel will be Ã¢â¬Å"Wish it, Dream it, Do it!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wish itÃ¢â¬ means consumers whose desires are the hotels external pursuit (Yoo, Donthu & Lee, 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Dream itÃ¢â¬ mean consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ desires will be the hotels ultimate goal. Ã¢â¬Å"Do itÃ¢â¬ means the actions of the hotel will prove everything. The NAIS number of the hotel business will be 721111. The approximate annual revenue in the first year that the business is expecting to generate is $ 73,000 projecting the hotel to operate successfully. The business plan proposal for the theme hotel will include feasibility study, financial planning and marketing plans for opening this new venture (Brown, 2001). The Dream Paradise Theme hotel will be built on the parking lot 2 which is near to the Ontario place. The Ontario place will reopen to public by 2016 and this is the main reason the place is most suitable to choose (Nissim & Penman, 2001). Moreover, another reason for selecting the area is that most of the hotels are situated in the downtown area. When the consumers look at these hotels, they might face difficulties in decision making (Der Foo, Wong & Ong, 2005). However, this theme hotel will have special theme rooms and a proper location to attack tourism. The hotel will offer its customers various themed rooms to its customers and according to the demand of the customers Dream Paradise theme hotel will design its rooms. The hotel has decided to categorize its hotel rooms into primary rooms, silver rooms and gold rooms. The primary room will be designed as per the demands of its customer groups (Mason & Stark, 2004). Themes for kids will be like frozen, hello kitty, Disneyland and Legoland, etc. The themes for teenagers are angry birds, Sea world, Cars, Harry Potter, Star Wars, etc. Themes for adults will be of popular movies, countries and sights, etc and lastly, the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Protecting Private Property - Term Paper Example The fact is that Hitler was a socialist, but he also betrayed his socialist principles by promoting the enrichment of a few individuals at the expense of the populace. Despite its massive industrialization and military development at the height of Nazi rule, the German economy was not thriving, and economic growth did not trickle down to the peasants. Looking at this statement at face value suggests that Hitler was a capitalist. However, as a capitalist, he should not have been encouraging and participating in the destruction and grabbing of private Jewish property and businesses. The irony is ridiculous, to say the least. Man must be put in a Position to Develop Freely the Talents that God has given HimI totally agree with this statement. From religious and philosophical perspectives, it is obvious that God created every one of us with a special talent and wanted the best for mankind. In the book of Genesis, God says during the creation that He created man in His own image and liken ess. From the little we know about God, He is omnipotent, omnibenevolent, omniscience and omnipresence. Since we were created in His image and likeness, we should be able to demonstrate limited aspects of these attributes because we cannot be exactly like Him. However, we have abilities that God gave us and only Him Ã¢â¬â not another man Ã¢â¬â can deny us the opportunity to develop those God-given human talents and abilities. It is often said that one is born with a talent or ability, or Ã¢â¬Å"was meantÃ¢â¬ to do something.
Friday, August 23, 2019
See Description - Essay Example First, the act of having favorites among siblings is a major cause of sibling rivalry. This is a situation where parents treat the children differently. As such, a child, or children may feel neglected in favor of brothers or sisters. This creates a gap between them in their relationship. The children cannot interact or coexist peacefully. Hostilities are imminent. Unequal treatment may be in form of parents rewarding some children and not appreciating the efforts of the others. Consequently, ignoring the contribution of some siblings to the family is also a dangerous factor that leads to rivalry. Siblings assume that they do not belong to the same family. Another basis is the treatment accorded to a newborn in the family. According to Goldenthal, children feel neglected when parents shift their care and attention to nursing a newborn (12). More often, the arrival of newborn has been associated with shifts in attention from the older children to the infant. As such, the older children may feel disappointed and develop a cold attitude towards the newborn. The rivalry may continue as far as the parents treat the children differently. When parents send a child or children to live with relatives while other children are left is seen as discrimination. Children who are left behind are seen to derive more favor and affection from the parents. On the other hand, children who are sent away feel like they do not belong. Thus, the rivalry between the children who Ã¢â¬Ëdo not belongÃ¢â¬â¢ and those who Ã¢â¬ËbelongÃ¢â¬â¢ is unavoidable (10). As stated earlier, sibling rivalry is detrimental to family welfare and thus should be avoided at all. As such, parents should always look out for signs of alienation in the family. The major actions that can mitigate sibling rivalry are; detect the presence of bullying in the family, avoid favoritism, talk to children later, parents should never get into children fights, ask straight questions. Parents are in the best
Thursday, August 22, 2019
SPECIAL PROBLEM IN OFFICE MANAGEMENT Essay Relative Standing Today from the Past to Today criteria: a.) NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Share of Capital Definition of Ã¢â¬Å"Share CapitalÃ¢â¬ : Funds raised by issuing shares in return for cash or other considerations. The amount of share capital a company has can change over time because each time a business sells new shares to the public in exchange for cash, the amount of share capital will increase. Share capital can be composed of both common and preferred shares. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The GDP is monetary value of all goods and services produced in a nation during a given time period, usually one year. Basically, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a tally of everything bought for money during the course of a year. Consumer purchases from a candy bar to a car are counted in the GDP. When business buyÃ computer, farmers sell their crops, or a corporation exports goods overseas, the transaction all increase the GDP. Government spending, whether for a highway or a new bomber, also contributes to the GDP. Gross National Product (GNP) It is an additional measure of the size of the economy. It is the market value of final goods and services purchased by households, by government, and by foreign in current year. It uses slightly different criteria than GDP, and GDP is more often used for comparison of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic progress against that of other countries. GDP and GNP in the Global Economy Due to factors such as technological advances, of trade barriers, and expansion of international financial markets, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economies are more interconnected than ever before and the weakness of one can affect the health of them all. An internal crisis that affects the financial health of one country can send shockwaves around the world. Most government of the world maintains a national accounting system that compiles various measures of economic activity. There is even a set of international guidelines, the system of National Accounts, which provides on measuring GDP and other key statistic. Income approach Sum the income received by all producers in the country. Production approach Estimating the Gross values of Domestic output in various economic activities. Determining the intermediate consumption Deducting intermediate consumption from domestic value to obtain the Net Value of domestic output. Comparing GDP of Different Nations When computing GDP, nations use their local currency. In order to compare it to the GDPÃ¢â¬â¢s of other countries, it must be converted to a common currency. Converting value of currency, however, may result in an incomplete understanding of the true worth of money on a foreign nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. The same goods and services do not the same amount in every country. In addition to asking how much local currency equal in U.S., dollars one should ask how much value of a dollar will buy in the country. Expenditures Approach to Calculating GDP The expenditures Approach to calculating GDP by summing the four possible types of expenditures as follows: GDP = Consumption +Investment +Government Purchases +Net Exports Consumption The largest components of the GDP, consumption are calculated by adding durable and non-durable goods and services expenditures. Investment Investments in fixed assets and increases in inventory. Government Purchases Equal to the government expenditures less government transfer payments (welfare, unemployment payouts, etc.) Net exports Exports minus imports. Imports are subtracted since the GDP is defined as the output of the domestic economy. There are three approaches to calculating GDP -Expenditure approach Calculated the final spending on goods and services. -Production approach Calculate the market value of goods and services. These three approaches are equivalent with each rendering the same result. Per capita income The concept of international inequality refers to inequality across countries due to differences in per capita income among them. This concept of inequality takes as the unit of analysis, countries (nations) and, implicitly, omits intra-country income differences among its citizens. There are several methodological considerations involved in cross-country comparisons of per capita income: the exchange rates used in the comparisons (observed or purchasing power parity), the source of income data (survey-based or national accounts), etc. An important methodological issue, relevant for assessing the empirical recent evidence on the evolution of international inequality is how to weigh countries to compute an index of international inequality. One procedure Ã¢â¬âunweighted international inequalityÃ¢â¬â is to assume that all countries count equally (in an analogy, a sort of UN General Assembly concept in which one country is one vote). Another concept is to weigh countries by population weighted international inequality. Here a more populous country (e.g. China) counts more than a small country (e.g. Luxembourg) when making inferences about the welfare level of the Ã¢â¬Å"representative individualÃ¢â¬ in the world economy. Another concept is world inequality. Here the unit of analysis is the citizen of the world rather than countries. The concept of world inequality treats, in principle, all individuals in the world the same and ranks them from the poorest to the richest, regardless their country of origin (Milanovic, 2001). An index of world inequality can be decomposed as the sum of international (between countries) inequality plus national (within country) inequality plus an overlapping component or residual (Yitzhaki, 1994). In other words, the distribution of income (welfare) of an individual of the world is the outcome of distributional patterns within the country he/she lives and the distribution of incom e of his/her country with respect to other countries (plus the overlapping term or residual). National inequality, say the disparity of the distribution of income within a country, provide the bridge between international and world inequality. The determinants of international inequality are the forces generating different rates of growth across countries that, over time, generate (important) differences in per capita income, living standards and levels of development across nations. In turn, national inequality depends on factor prices, ownership of productive resources within countries, demographic patterns, technical change and macroeconomic cycles. Of course, several of these factors can affect also international inequality. Health care Services Although predicated on the premise that the global concept is new, it actually had its origins in the late 1800s. Religious foreign mission groups felt it was their spiritual calling to tend to the sick and afflicted in poor countries (Schroth Khawaja, 2007). The religious work of missions was closely linked to medical work. These missionaries believed that the services they provided were designed to reduce human misery and suffering, thereby elevating the status of God in the minds of people. Mission hospitals and mission doctors served as important points of entry of Western medicine into other countries, and were the hub of medical knowledge and practice. Private healthcare facilities were established as part of the charitable mission. Even now, medical mission groups, such as Doctors without Borders and Heal the Nations, provide charitable medical care to the developing world. Subsequent innovations in healthcare have made it possible to bring patients from other countries into US hospitals for care that is not available in their home country. Specialists from US hospitals may also be utilized in countries that have no such physicians. For instance, Operation Smile, an international medical humanitarian organization, has a presence in over 50 countries (Magee, 2009). Their focus is surgical treatment of children with cleft lip and palate while providing the necessary medical training for local medical volunteers that will result in self-sufficiency for these communities. OftenÃ persons travel to the US to avoid delays in care due to long lines and waiting periods experienced in other countries that may have universal coverage. Telemedicine is the exchanging of patient information through the Internet or cybertechnology. This ability allows healthcare professionals to communicate patient status regardless of distance (Goldbach West, 2010). Telehealth and teleconferencing have been used extensively for consulting with other professionals as well as reaching patients who live in rural or remote areas. The most popular direction globalization has taken is in the area of medical tourism. This aspect involves patients choosing to leave one country for another in order to seek quality specialized care or major surgery at a reduced cost (Keckley Underwood, 2007; Goldbach West, 2010). Countries such as India, Singapore, and Thailand provide care such as cardiac surgery, joint replacements, and reconstructive surgery at significant differences in cost. For instance, in India, a person can have cardiac surgery for approximately $25,000 less than the cost in the US. Along with the medical care provided, these locations offer a vacation-like atmosphere. Another feature that encourages the use of medical tourism is the availability of medications and technologies that may be experimental in some countries but readily available in others. Because of the cost differential, some private insurers also offer incentives to utilize medical tourism as a means of accessing health care services. Although medical tourism has led to knowledge development on a worldwide scale, concerns remain as to quality and liability. However, despite these concerns, entities such as medical tourism have the potential to increase awareness of illness and disease processes. This knowledge could be empowering to developing countries. Since the early 1990s, over 48 million people have been displaced due to the environmental crisis and its health related impact (Toole, 1995). HIV rates are increasing both in the US and abroad, infecting nearly 25 million people. Other diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera have developed into drug-resistant strains proven difficult to treat, thus increasing the disease transmission rates. It is predicted that by 2020, heart disease willÃ become the leading cause of disease an disability followed by depression and traffic accidents (Murray Lopez, 1996). Poverty has been found to be a leading predictor of health disparities. More than 25 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population lives in poverty. This economic burden results in decreased access to necessary and affordable healthcare. Public and private healthcare expenditures worldwide equal about 8 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economic output (World Bank, 1993). Life Expectancy As noted at the beginning of this chapter, globalization is here to stay even if it benefits just one set of nations of the world. However, that does not mean that it is fair, justifiable, and that its course cannot be altered. On thing remains clear: Most citizens of this world realize the injustices and are asking the major powers and corporations that benefit from the system to ensure that the planet is the ultimate winner, bringing an end or reduction to inequities or disparities, especially in health, the theme of this chapter, and provide the means, the knowledge, and the empowerment they need politically, economically, and environmentally to live better lives. This chapter has argued, and many others have done, that one of the most potent sticks through which to measure the objectives and the success of the phenomenon we have come to call globalization is the extent to which health and health care systems function for the extension of life expectancy and access to quality health care services. One can argue that, in the final analysis, globalization and its acclaimed successes are interdependent on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Health concerns and priorities dominate our lives and without it, life is almost meaningless, as it is for many who carry the burden of disease, especially when this condition can be easily alleviated, as is the case with many infectious and communicable diseases in the developing world. According to Okasha (2005): The process [of globalization] has clearly both negative and positive results and is likely to create both losers and winners. Globalization has promised to grant the world instant communication, fast and efficient means of travel, a widened access to technology, cross-border cultural interaction and globalized approaches to environmental issues. However, it also entailsÃ deregulation of commerce and the creation of supernational political and economic bodies. As a result, the gap is widening between societies that Ã¢â¬Å"enjoy knowledge, tec hnology and the ability to control events and others which are still backward, ignorant, frustrated, helpless and unable to follow progress and selfactualizationÃ¢â¬ (Okasha, 2005). The public response It is encouraging, however, that the unfairness of the system has not gone unnoticed. Labonte Torgerson (2003) remind us that the WTO has actually been under fire from social and human rights activists, the United Nations, civil society, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and even from the European countries themselves, which created it at the Uruguay Round of Talks on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTOÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"level playing field,Ã¢â¬ with different rules and treatment, Ã¢â¬Å"is pushing many of these countries into deeper health-compromising poverty. Its negotiations to open public services to trade will hasten their privatization, with loss of access for the poor.Ã¢â¬ In other words, the health needs for most inhabitants of this planet appear gloomy for the foreseeable future. Looking toward solutions What is the solution? The intent of our chapter was not to give solutions to the problems of globalization but to provide an overview of what the phenomenon and its system have done to the health of many people of the world, currently reflected in the existing health disparities or inequities that have prevented them from enjoying access to quality health Ã¢â¬Å"care, life saving knowledge, reasonable income, clean air, clean water, sanitation, land, and gainful employment.Ã¢â¬ In order to reap the benefits of globalization, say many experts, Ã¢â¬Å"we need novel approaches to international cooperation that place national self-interest in the context of global mutual interest to promote international cooperation and goodwillÃ¢â¬ (Frenk and Gomez-Dantes, 2000; Pang Guindon, 2004). References: The Impact of Globalization Determinants and the Health of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Population Mario J. Azevedo and Barbara H. Johnson School of Health Sciences, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi, USA Globalization for Development: Trade, Finance, Aid, Migration and Policy Golding Kenneth A. Reinert
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
DBQ Andrew Jackson Essay Andrew Jackson was a man of the people because he was once a part of the people. Before he was elected into office, he was a man who had lived a tough childhood but learned to manage and move forward to become a successful prosecutor and eventually a well known general. A man who has lived through a life filled with challenges knows what is best for his people and knows what they want. He wanted the people to be a part of the government. He wanted them to have a voice, which is why he believed in democracy but the way that he acted throughout his political career was not democratic at all. Andrew Jackson accomplished to changed many things in the government without the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vote. He had a part in the spoils system and he made decisions for groups of people that were completely unfair. Andrew Jackson was not a big fan of how the government was previously ranned. There was always something that he wanted to change. One of the things he changed were the rotation of the government officials in office. Of course he kept in mind that the people should be able to control all offices in congress so he proposed a constitutional amendment. He was changing the time period elected officials should remain in office. Not only did he change it for everyone else but he also wanted to changed it for himself. (Document D).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Health and Safety Strategies in Construction INTRODUCTION: Good health and safety at work is not only important in human terms, but it is also one of the most effective ways to ensure that the enterprises are successful and sustainable. Simple cost benefit analysis will not be the appropriate way to look towards the issue of health and safety, as it is almost impossible to determine the cost of unquantifiable losses such as suffering, pain caused to the affected person and his family, loss in mobility, etc. Good health and safety of their employees is not only the moral obligation of the enterprises, but it comes along with the legal bindings as well. Key legislations like Health and Safety at Work Act (HSWA) 1974, Construction Design and Management (CDM) 1994 and many more like these have made it almost impossible for the businesses to ignore this area. Also, not to forget, there are many financial aspects attached to it. Factors like disruption, claims for damages, loss of confidence in management and loss of goodwill might impact the economy of business substantially, sometimes leading them to the total collapse. Hence, it is very important for any organization to follow the existing policies, to keep track of ne w updates in rules and regulations and to be innovative in finding out the ways to reduce risks. The Manchester Joint Hospitals Project has already demonstrated a better-than-average safety record. Build quality and productivity have been excellent. Other projects in the North-West England are recognising the change and following the example. But all these positive results should not stop an organization from finding out the new ways to reduce the risk at work. Following actions have already been taken on the construction site by keeping the key legislations for respective action in mind, failing to comply with which, the company and management would have been prosecuted. Actions and their respective legislations are as given below: Development of Safety Committee: HSWA 1974, s.2(4) Stop Work Procedure : HSWA 1974, s.2(1) Safety Representatives Training : HSWA 1974, s.2(7) Few initiatives are mentioned below, which will help in to improve safety, health and welfare on site. It may also help the project to become a role model, which others would like to follow. Initiatives 1) Substance abuse at work: It can be described as the overindulgence in and dependence of a drugor other chemical leading to effects that are detrimental to the individuals physical and mental health, or the welfareof others. Most of the people and organizations still think that alcohol or drug addiction is personal matter as long as it takes off the work place. But they fail to recognise the long term effects of this addiction on that person. Typical response from management on such issues would be: Collusion: Either turn a blind eye towards the problem or reduce the effect of the problem by, for example, transferring the employee. Dismissal: Terminate the employee from the organization. But, the two solutions mentioned above can at the most, reduce the effect of the problem or removes effect on the workplace. A more sympathetic and decisive approach would be to motivate employees in the initial stage of their problem. An employer must analyse and investigate the existing as well as the potential problems and consult employees and their representatives. Following remedial measures should be taken to overcome this issue. A written substance abuse policy A supervisory training program An employee education and awareness program Access to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) A drug testing program, where appropriate Barriers: Employment contracts: It is very difficult to change employment contract terms of existing employees without ample consultation and without giving convincing reason for doing so. Confidentiality: Employees seeking help for a substance abuse might be reluctant to approach management in the initial stage, as they will be sceptical about the confidentiality of their matter. Hence it the duty of the employer to respect the privacy of the respective employee. Key Legislation under which initiative should be taken: According to HSWA 1974 S.1 (1a), it is preliminary duty of the employer to secure health safety and welfare of persons at work. As per HSWA 1974 S.2 (1), general duties of employer, it requires employer to ensure, so far as is reasonable practicable, health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. In HSWA 1974 section 7(a), general duties of employees at work, it places every employee at work under an obligation to take reasonable care of their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected. Also HSWA 1974 section 3(1) and s2 (3) put emphasis on employers for conducting an undertaking for health and safety risks and policy. 2) Artificial Optical Radiation: According to Eurofound (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions), optical radiation can be defined as any electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range between 100 nm and 1 nm. It is further divided into ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation and infrared radiation. Exposure to UV radiations from sun can lead to skin damage like sunburn, skin aging, blistering, sun beds and long term exposure can sometimes, may lead to skin cancer. As per Health and Safety Executive guidance, people with the pale skin, especially those with the fair or red hair, are at the maximum risk, whereas, people with black or brown skin are at the lowest risk. But, people of all skin colours are susceptible to overheating and dehydration. As an employer we can: Include sun protection advice on regular health and safety training. Provide appropriate protective equipments to the workers who are exposed to artificial optical radiations. Instruct workers to keep covered up while working in the sun, especially during summer. Encourage workers to take breaks in the shade instead of standing in the sun. Provide site water points and rest area in shade. Schedule work to minimize exposure. Conduct regular skin check up of the workers who are exposed to sun quite frequently. Barriers: Workers may avoid covering entire body with clothes or protective equipments, as they can feel bit restricted in moving the body while working. Negligent attitude of workers can lead them to long term exposure to the optical radiations. Key Legislation under which initiative should be taken: As of now, there is no legal obligation on employers to provide outdoor workers with sun cream or sunglasses, but HSE encourages employers to include sun protection advice in routine health and safety training. But The European Parliament and Council have introduced directive (2006/25/EC) on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from optical radiation. It contains provisions on risk assessment, control of exposure, health surveillance and information, instruction and training. Member States have until 27 April 2010 to transpose the Directive and implement its requirements. 3) Noise at work: Long term exposure to high frequency noise at work can cause temporary or permanent hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss can be caused immediately by extremely loud, explosive noises. But in most of the cases, hearing loss is a gradual process because of prolonged exposure to noise. As per the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005, employers have following duties: Assess the risk to the employees Take action to reduce the noise exposure which may produce risk Otherwise provide employees hearing protection Stay within the legal limits of noise exposure Provide employees with information, instruction and training Barriers: Workers may feel isolated after wearing noise protective equipment, hence might avoid using it. Workers might find it difficult to use protective equipments along with hard hats. So if the wide range of equipments is not available, workers will try to avoid using them. Workers may find it difficult to follow instructions given by supervisor while working. It may lead workers to avoid using protective equipments. Key Legislation under which initiative should be taken: According to HSWA 1974 S.1 (1a), it is preliminary duty of the employer to secure health safety and welfare of persons at work. As per HSWA 1974 S.2 (1), general duties of employer, it requires employer to ensure, so far as is reasonable practicable, health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. The Noise Control at Work Regulations 1989 and 2005 requires employers to prevent or reduce risks to health and safety of employees from exposure to noise at work. Conclusion: The Manchester Joint Hospital Project has already been achieving better-than-average safety record. Many other projects in north-west England have already been starting to follow the project. With the implementation of initiatives suggested above, by keeping barriers in mind and trying to emulate them at the time of implementation, this project can achieve new heights in the record books of health and safety and can become a role model, which every other project in the country would like to follow.
The Great Gatsby as a Representative of the Jazz Age The notorious portrayal of the 1920s is often characterized as an era of abundant prosperity, lavish lifestyles, and Ã¢â¬Å"new agedÃ¢â¬ philosophies. This image, however, was only the surface of a skewed decade filled with deep cultural discord. Underneath all the glitz and glamour of the racy flappers and the fiery jazz bands was a dueling battle of old school Victorian ways versus new aged America (Mintz). This glorious Ã¢â¬Å"jazz age,Ã¢â¬ as Mr. Fitzgerald put it himself, was Ã¢â¬Å"an age of miracles, and age of art, an age of excess, and it was an age of satireÃ¢â¬ (Sickles). After WWI ended in 1918, The American society experienced an abrupt age of economic and cultural miracles (McDougal Littell Inc 425). What was once a country in great turmoil and despair had rapidly become a country rising into power, wealth, and prosperity. With this great change also came an enormous transformation of the American way of life (412). FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Great Gatsby captured this transformation exceptionally well with its representation of east egg and west egg, as symbols of societies ever-changing cultural views (Fitzgerald 101). FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"eggsÃ¢â¬ were two land masses in New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Island Sound that were separated by a small bay of water. Although they were only a short distance away from each other, the two eggs served as social barriers which were not to be crossed (9). The east egg was reserved for New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s aristocratic social class that had been brought up in the pre-war Victorian era. It represented the ma ny wealthy family chains who wanted to keep their elite social status and way of life the same, like how it was before WWI (10). The west egg, however, was home to a new breed of Ame... ...s. Tom and Daisy showed their true colors, by using their social status and the power of money to bail them out of the inevitable truth: their cowardice was to blame for Myrtle and GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s untimely deaths (Fitzgerald 187). Instead of showing Mr. Gatsby the decency of appearing at his funeral, they simply moved to another home to forget their shameful past (172). Every Saturday Jay Gatsby threw elaborate parties filled with crowds of people, yet at his funeral none of his Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ were there (Richards). This coincided with the 1920s hedonistic way of life. None the less, Ã¢â¬Å"Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before usÃ¢â¬ ¦ tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms fartherÃ¢â¬ ¦. And one fine morning- So we beat on. Boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the pastÃ¢â¬ (Nick Carraway, qtd. in Fitzgerald 189).
Monday, August 19, 2019
Are There Philosophical Reasons To Promote Gifted Education In The Context Of A Democratic And Egal :: Philosophy Essays
Are There Philosophical Reasons To Promote Gifted Education In The Context Of A Democratic And Egalitarian Society? ABSTRACT: Despite the historical recognition of the importance of the development of individual human potentialities for the group, gifted individuals have not been treated equally. Three reasons are analyzed: (a) the primacy given to institutions over the individual, except those particular cases in which the individual is identified with the institution itself, or invested with the power of one institution; (b) the lack of recognition of the particular needs of gifted individuals; and (c) the assumption of egalitarian ideals inside specific societies. Despite arguments to the contrary, gifted education will be defended. Gifted individuals have special needs. I assume that Hope and Good Will provide enough justification for this public human task. Traditionally defined, education is the social enterprise that preserves the cultural gains of human groups, and transmits them to future generations. As a social tool, education is used to reach collective and individual objectives; it is a common tool that helps to satisfy the needs of both the society as a whole, and each individual in particular. It is also broadly acknowledged that educational endeavors are human efforts to trim, polish, and "improve" our human nature. From a historical perspective, we notice that human societies have provided unequal educational attention to their constituencies. Individuals coming from different socio-economical strata have had access to correspondingly different levels of attention. Usually, those individuals pertaining to a higher strata in the power structure have received the benefits of a major social investment, mainly for the sake of status, regardless of their real capabilities. At this point we need to make explicit the implicit assumption that individual capabilities --wit, talents, genius, temper, neuromusculoskeletal structure, and diverse chemical byproducts-are the historical result of randomly combined factors, including date and place of birth. There is another assumption that should be considered for a mixture of pragmatic and ideological reasons without ignoring that some of its implications convey some internal logical contradictions and, potentially, undesirable effects. Nevertheless, if we assume --for the sake of the argument-- that all human beings are equal, and all have the right to develop their potential to its maximum, then we have to say that fair and systematic attention is not found in the treatment given to the whole class of individuals genetically endowed with special needs --including the gifted ones. Some of them have been neglected in the frame of our highly socio-economical and politically stratified societies.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Style, Technique, and Structure of Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad is proof that a novel does not have to be long to have literary merit. Heart of Darkness is quite short, yet intriguing, due to the content of the novel. Much like ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, Heart of Darkness overwhelms the reader by the power of the story so that one will never feel quite satisfied with their attempts to intellectualize the experience (Adelman 8). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Heart of Darkness was written during the time of British imperialism and extreme exploitation of Africans in the Congo. The British were exploiting the Africans in an effort to extract ivory from the primitive jungle. Throughout the novel, Conrad expresses his dislike with the 'civilized' white people exploiting the 'savage' black Africans. Conrad also uses several literary devices in his writing to portray and express several messages. The writing style, techniques, structure and themes in Heart of Darkness all combine to create one of the most renowned, respected and mysterious novels of all time. Conrad wrote an ultimate enigma for readers to interpret and critically analyze for years to come. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Conrad's excellence in style is very controversial; some believe that he is "a literary genius" (Adelman 16), while others "criticize him for being limited, pretentious and vague" ((Adelman 16). Throughout the novel, Conrad uses ample amounts of descriptive language, vivid imagery, and powerful symbolism. The vague part is that he leaves it up to the reader to interpret his mysterious and 'unspeakable' enigmas. Conrad's descriptive language in Heart of Darkness is present from the beginning to the end. With the opening paragraphs d... ...xperience" (Adelman 8). Overall, readers must interpret for themselves which meanings Conrad intended or if he intended all the meanings. This deep novel by Joseph Conrad is not easy to read but is valuable knowledge once it is read. Ã Works Cited Adelman, Gary. Heart of Darkness: Search for the Unconscious. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987. Conrad, Joseph. The Heart of Darkness. Ed. Cedric Watts. London: Everyman, 1995. Fothergill, Anthony. Open Guides to Literature: Heart of Darkness. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1989. Glassman, Peter J. Language and Being: Joseph Conrad and the Literature of the Personality. New York and London: Columbia: University Press, 1976. Tindall, W.Y. "The Duty of Marlow." In Conrad's Heart of Darkness and the Critics. Ed. Bruce Harkness. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1968.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Engineering is a rapidly developing career field. There are many reasons why I would like to become an engineer. I am interested in SIUEÃ¢â¬â¢s Mechanical Engineering program. Mechanical Engineering is an exciting career field. In my youth, I was constantly designing and building an assortment of contraptions out of LEGOÃ¢â¬â¢s and KÃ¢â¬â¢NEX pieces. These objects included rollercoasters, cars, buildings, tractors, and many other machines. Growing up on a farm, I have always been interested in agriculture. There are many reasons why IÃ¢â¬â¢m interested in the Mechanical Engineering program at SIUE. This program offers many challenges to its students while providing them with numerous opportunities to design and build many machines and devices. I have three cousins who are engineers. One of my cousins is a civil engineer, and the other two are mechanical engineers. The first mechanical engineer designs air ducts for commercial buildings. The second designs plastic containers for a variety of companies. While these are not related to my career interest, it shows the broad amount of jobs available to a mechanical engineer. This is another reason why this program interests me. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, knowing thereÃ¢â¬â¢s about a ten percent unemployment rate, the ability to have a very wide range set of skills is nearly a necessity. While building small toys out of plastic pieces is much different than designing the next rollercoaster, it is how I originally gained so much interest in engineering. At the age of seven, I received a rollercoaster KÃ¢â¬â¢NEX set for Christmas. We opened presents at about nine on Christmas Eve. By the time we were done, it was almost ten. I stayed up building the roller coaster and finished in about an hour and a half. The design was not very complex; however, it was taller than me at the time. I also built as many cars as possible out of my LEGOÃ¢â¬â¢s. The fact that it was always interesting, and still is, is the main reason why I am interested in engineering. Agriculture has had a major influence on my life. I live on a farm, and many people know the ups and downs of farm life. The fact that this career could give me the ability to work at a company like John Deere or Caterpillar is very exciting. Once I graduate, I plan to work in an agriculture related field. I have grown up around it and want to see the look on my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s face when I design him a better tractor or combine. The salary that comes with these jobs is also a bonus since IÃ¢â¬â¢m used to money being short at times. Engineering is one of the most interesting and broadest career fields today. I am very interested in Mechanical Engineering at SIUE. Whether I was building KÃ¢â¬â¢NEX rollercoasters or LEGO cars, I have been building since my youth. Growing up on a farm has given me background for my career interests and has been an important factor in choosing my major
Friday, August 16, 2019
Hepatitis Introduction to Health and Disease April 17, 2010 Hepatitis Introduction Hepatitis is a symptomatic infection that affects the liver. The most common types of Hepatitis virus are A, B, C, D and E. The history of hepatitis dates back to ancient times and the success of modern medicine have improved the prevention and treatment of most types of Hepatitis. The high risk groups include injectible drug users, hemodialysis patients, and those who have sexual contact with infected people. Hepatitis B and C are the leading cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancer in the United States. History History of Hepatitis is believed to go back as far as the ancient times. With todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern medicine scientists have discovered a major breakthrough in 1963 that identified a serum hepatitis known as Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Ten years later, they found the cause of hepatitis infection and called it Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In 1989, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) was discovered. Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) was known in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, but was better understood by scientists in the 1980-1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. Later the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) was discovered in 1990. Etiology Hepatitis A (HAV) the least serious form and may develop as an isolated case of an epidemic. It is estimated that one out of every 3 people has been affected by HAV. Transmission of HAV is associated with close personal contact or contaminated food or water (Wilson, p. 13). Hepatitis B (HBV) is transmitted primarily by contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. Injectable drug users, people with multiple sexual partners and homosexuals are at higher risk for contracting the B virus. Hepatitis B can severely damage a personÃ¢â¬â¢s liver, resulting in cancer (Nordqvist, 2009). Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most serious blood borne infection in the United States. The disease is often passed between drug users who share needles. People who are on dialysis and sexual contact are also at risk. The hepatitis virus is the leading cause of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplants (Wilson, 2005). Hepatitis D (HDV) is a defective virus that only if the people who are infected with Hepatitis B. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, unprotected sex, and piercing of the skin with infected needles. The effects of HDV are more serious and progresses to chronic liver disease more frequently than virus A, B, or C. Hepatitis E (HEV) is the leading cause of epidemics around the world, but cases in the United States are rare. Primarily HEV is spread by fecal contaminated drinking water and there is no evidence that HEV progresses to chronic liver disease (Wilson, 2005). There have been no cases of HEV reported in the United States. Patients with Hepatitis A and B typically experience sudden unset of fever, malaise and fatigue, nausea and abdominal pain. Anorexia and jaundice may also be present. Hepatitis C is less forgiving as symptoms may not appear until the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition has progressed to cirrhosis or cancer (Neighbors & Tannehill-Jones, 2006). Populations affected by Hepatitis In the United States approximately 1. 2 million are living with Hepatitis B and 3. 2 are living with Hepatitis C. Estimated 25,000 people become infected with Hepatitis A. Many people do not know the virus infection exist in the body (CDC, 2009). The Center for Disease Control (2009) estimates 180 million people over the world is infected with HCV, of which four million are identified as cases in the United States. Each year 26,000 cases of HCV are diagnosed in the United States alone, and 10,000 to 12,000 deaths are contributed to HVC (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009, p. 1). The hepatitis virus is the leading cause of liver cancer and the reason for liver transplants. In the United States approximately 1. 2 million are living with Hepatitis B and 3. 2 are living with Hepatitis C. Estimated 25,000 people become infected with Hepatitis A. Many people do not know the virus infection exist in the body (CDC, 2009). Treatment In July of 1982 the Hepatitis B vaccine was approved for use and thirteen years later (1995) the HAV vaccine was approved for use. These significant scientific breakthroughs have led a steady decline in the number of HAV and HBV cases in the United States. There is not a vaccine available for HCV but scientists are working hard to develop one. In addition to the vaccines some treatment options are available. HAV usually resolves itself and no specific treatment is needed. Treatment for HBV is Interferon which slows the progress of the disease in about 40% of patients (Neighbors & Tannehill-Jones, 2006). In addition to treating HBV Interferon is very effective for treating HCV. This antiviral slows the disease process about 30% of the time (Neighbors & Tannehill-Jones, 2006). There is not an effective treatment for HDV or HEV. Treatment for end stage cirrhosis or cancer caused by hepatitis may result in a liver transplant. Conclusion Hepatitis is a disease that causes an inflammation of the liver. There are several viruses that cause cirrhosis or cancer of the liver. Hepatitis A is a mild disease that typically resolves itself. The hepatitis B virus is more severe than A and less severe than C. The availability of vaccines for Hepatitis A and B has decreased the number of cases while Hepatitis C continues to infect high risk populations. Scientists continue to strive for a cure for Hepatitis C but in the meantime a people need to be aware of the disease and take steps the reduce the possibility of exposure. References Centers for Disease Control. (2009). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss5803. pdf Neighbors, M. & Tannehill-Jones, R. (2006). Viral diseases acquired through alimentary and other routes. In Human diseases (pp. 201-203). Retrieved from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader. aspx Nordqvist, C. (2009,Ã April). What is Hepatitis? Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. Medical News Today, (), Retrieved April 13, 2010 from http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/articles/145869. php Wilson, T. (2005). The ABCs of hepatitis. Th e Nurse Practitioner, 30(6), 12-18. Retrieved from Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The quest for knowledge remains a perplexing problem in the field of philosophy. Even nowadays mankind continue to seek to understand himself and the world around him he is thirst to know were exactly our knowledge comes from. The question of knowledge appears to be a battle between the empirisists who believed that knowledge is acquired through sense experience and the rationalists who believed that knowledge can only be required through reasoning. Although there are a lot of people who abides with these groups in my essay in my essay I will only deal with John locke who in this case argues that knowledge is acquired throughsense experience thereby representing the empirisists group and Rene Descartes who argues that knowledge comes fronm reasoning thereby representing the rationalists. Diffrent scholars have also shown their appreciation to the work which was done by the two groups. Rene Descartes who is the rationalist have claimed that the ultimate starting point for knowledge is is not the senses but reason. According to Cottingham,Descartes argues that knowledge of a particular subject matter is underwritten by intuition or rational insight and deductive reasoning rather than experience of that subject matter(1984). Descartes in this case is of the opinion that the only way one can acquire knowledge is through deductive reasoning ,reasoning that aims at exactitude. In one way or other that exactitude is the one which we can now call knowledge Descartes maintain that without prior categories and principles supplied by reason wen could not organise and interrupt oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense experience in any way (Kenny:1986). In this case one would be faced with just one huge ,undifferentiated,kaleidospic whirl of sensation ,signifying nothing(Kenny:1986). Rationalism in its purest form goes so far as to hold that al our rational beliefs and the entirety of human knowledge consists in human principles and innate concepts. According to Russel Descartes believes that men are born with innate ideas or ideas that we are born with (1946:548). He argues that those innate ideas are generated and certified by reason along with anything logically deducable these first principles. Furthermore on innate ideas ,a number of mankind still how can reason supply ay mental category or first principle at all? The question is a bit easy for such people like Descartes who claimed that we are born with several fundamental concepts or categories in our minds ready for use(Stitch:1975). Descartes went own to argue that this gives us innate knowledge . This might be through certain categories of space ,time,cause and effect. In one way or other Descartes argues that people thinks in terms of cause and effect and this helps oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of the world(Stitch:1975). A ccording to Stitch Descartes argues that people think of themselves as seing some things causing other things to happen,but in terms of our raw sense experience ,one sees certain things happen before other thing happen and remember having seen such before and after the sequences at earlier times (1975). One can come up with an example like ,a rock hits the window and then the window breaks. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the third thing called causation but we believe it has happened. The rock hitting the window caused it to break but this is not experienced like the fight of the rock or the shattering of the glass. Descartes argues that experience does not seem to force the concept of causation on us. On this case Descartes bis denying the fact that knowledge comes fron sense experience but reasoning. Descartes also claimed that the foundations of our knowledge are propositions that are self-evidently true. A self-evident proposition has the strange property of being such that ,on merely understanding what it says and without any further checking or special evidence of any kind. One can just intellectually see that it is true(Caruthers:1992). If A is greater than B the B is greater than C and therefore A is greater than C. In this example the claim is that once these statements are understood ,it takes no further sense experience whatsoever to see that they are true . Descartes was athinker who used sceptical doubt as a prelude to constructing a retionalist philosophy. He was convinced that all our beliefs that are founded on the experience of the external senses could be called into doubt ,but that with certain beliefs like Ã¢â¬ËI am thinkingÃ¢â¬â¢,there is n o room for creating and sustaining a reasonable doubt(Pojman:1991:72). Descartes then tried to find enough other first principles with immune to rational doubt that he could provide an indubitable ,rational basis for all other legitimate beliefs. According to Pojman Descartes thought that mathematics gave a paradigm or model of certain knowledge or of attaining such knowledge (1991:73). He argued that mathematical knowledge is based on self evident axioms ,or first principles. In this case those principles are clear and distinctly persued as self-evident and in other words they are indubitable that is to say it is hard to doubt them. They are intrinsically valid on self-certifying . Dscartes argues that once we have such self-evident truths ,then with the rules of reasoning or logic ,theories can be validly deduced from them (Spinoza:1905). Descartes wanted to apply the method of philosophy as he argued that in mathematics ther is no appeal to sense experience . Human reasoning is the sole source of mathematical knowledge (Spinoza:1905). In this case Descartes claimed that by poor reasoning one can achieve knowledge. It was this method of doubt that Descartes used to get at the indubitable starting point which will be unshakable foundation of the edifice of knowledge hence to doubt means to think and think means to be(Pojman:1991). On the other hand we have the empirialists who in this case are being represented by John Locke. Locke is of the view that knowledge is acquired through sense experience. Locke was actually influenced by Descartes writings in which Descartes was arguing that knowledge comes from reasoning and the issue of innate ideas. According to Pojman Locke believes that the senses we maintain ,gives us all our raw data about the world and without this raw material their would be no knowledge at all(Pojman:1991:83). To Locke perception starts a process and from this process come all our beliefs . In its purest form ,Locke and his collegues believes that sense experience alone gave birth to all our knowledge. Locke was influenced by Descartes writings because what Descartes believes was the opposite of what Locke and his collegues believed mostly on the issue of innate ideas hence he decided to put on his suggestion on were exactly our knowledge comes from. Locke argues that innate ideas are suppose to be inborn ideas and they are their in the human mind since birth (Locke:1894). He argues that these ideas are neither created by us nor derived from our experiences. Locke argues that the human mind is a Ã¢â¬Ëtabula rasaÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning to say it is blank and it looks like a white sheet of paper without any content or ideas. According to Pojman there are no inborn ideas in the human mind(Pojman:1991). Ideas denote the content of human mind and consciousness. This then supports the idea that all ideas spring from experiences. According to Spinoza ,Locke argues that all knowledge is formed as and ultimately derived from sensational or inner reflection(1905) To add more the empirisists argue thatideas acquired through sensation and reflection are simple ideas. According Russel Locke argues that the mind has the power to reject ,compare and combine them to then form complex ideas(1946:551) . The simple ideas are the materials of the mind or consciousness. The mind elaborates them in defferent ways and this knowledge is developed(Russel:1946:551)Simple ideaas in this case are thus produced in the mind by the outer things through external experiences and simple ideas posseses valididty. The two theories presents different ideas on were exactly we get knowledge but I think I am convinced with the theory of Descartes which says knowledge is acquired through reason. Although the theory was mainly meant for the mathmaticians I think it is good for me because a men ought to reason so as to find knowledge. To me reasoning shows that someone really is thinking deeper so as to find whatever he wants . The method of doubt which he uses convince me also because I think through doubting you will be able to find knowledge. The Christians might want to say Thomas was wrong but in one way or other Thomas made Christians to know that realy the man they saw was Jesus and Christians were made to believe that really there is resurrection and this was through doubting Thomas. I cant just believe what I have not see without doubting because nowadays people tend to lie so as to get whatever they want in their lives . Therefore the theory of Descartes to me is good one on how we aquire knowledge . ? BIBLIOGRAPHY Carruthers. P.(1992)Human knowledge and human nature,Oxford: Oxford University PressÃ¢â¬â¢ Cottingham. J. (1984)Rationalism,London:Palada books. Fieser. P. (1991) Introduction to Philosophy. Oxford:Oxiford University Press Kenny. A. (ed). (1986)Rationalism,Empiricism and Idealism ,Oxiford:Oxiford University Press Locke. J. (1690)An essay on human understanding. (ed)R. Woolhouse. (1997). London:Panguin Books Louis. P. (2007)The theory of knowledge ,classical and temporary readings. Belment CA:Wadsworth Stitch. S. (ed)(1975)Innate ideas ,Berkely CA:Carlifonia University Press Russell. B. (1912)History of Western Philosophy . Oxiford:Oxiford University Press.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
This extract is from act one scene seven. This is when Macbeth gives his soliloquy on stage, right after Duncan arrives and is invited into their house by Lady Macbeth. The setting is still in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s castle at Inverness. He is confused as to whether to kill Duncan or not. This scene is mainly about Macbeth giving his soliloquy where he shows his dilemma on whether he should kill Duncan or not. His wife Lady Macbeth accuses Macbeth of being a coward and that she herself would want to kill Duncan or at least pass on her evil ideas to Macbeth. Macbeth feels very emotional about killing Duncan as he feels that they are kinsmen and that Duncan has high regard for Macbeth. He is also doubtful that they might be caught in the process and that they will be in a worse off situation. Lady Macbeth brainwashes him and at last gets him to listen to her. There is a main theme in this scene that is that whether Macbeth should kill or not kill his king Duncan, who also happened to be his guest. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience comes over him and he feels that he should not commit this horrendous deed while his wife teases him about his weakness and cowardice. This is when Macbeth decides once in for all that he will kill Duncan as Macbeth has nothing to argue with Lady Macbeth so he listens to her. Macbeth and Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is very strong. Macbeth is a very weak and cowardice man when compared to his wife as she is outgoing and is very strong. Macbeth is a brave and strong warrior but his emotions and his conscience make him very weak and frail. This causes him to have doubts on whether he should kill his king or not. There is a lot of imagery in this scene of the play. First there is all the dark imagery which portrays the evil in the book. There is also MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition which is portrayed as a horse in the statement Ã¢â¬Å"Vaulting ambition which oÃ¢â¬â¢erleaps itselfÃ¢â¬ . There is also some child imagery in the line Ã¢â¬Å"And pity, like a naked newborn babeÃ¢â¬ . There is once again the reversal of values in the last line Ã¢â¬Å"False face must hide what the false heart doth knowÃ¢â¬ . The dramatic effect in this scene is very high as in most of the otherÃ scenes. There is a heightened suspense of whether Macbeth will choose to kill Duncan or not. The audience is made to believe that Macbeth will not kill Duncan, but Lady Macbeth brainwashes Macbeth towards the end and he decides to kill Duncan and take the throne. This scene should be enacted on a very dark and gloomy setting where there is a lot of echo. This gives the audience the effect of evil in the set. If this scene is performed well the audience will be struck by the seriousness and the suspense of the scene. This scene is very important in the whole play as this scene shows the faithfulness of Macbeth towards Duncan. This scene also shows the good side of Macbeth. The audience is shown that Lady Macbeth was one of the main motives behind pushing Macbeth towards murdering Duncan.
Tourism and Hospitality Research - Essay Example Research help players in the hospitality industry to understand the best ways provide services for customers. Primary research aids in gathering of information used in books and the respective fields across the globe. While the benefits of research are obvious, it is still debatable if there is such a thing as perfect research. Because of the value laden nature of research, subjectivity of facts, and bias of researchers, I agree with GriffithÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion Ã¢â¬Å"there is no hope of doing perfect researchÃ¢â¬ (Griffiths, 1998, p97). I argue that despite the absence of perfect research, researchers should be objective, and provide information that is helpful for the tourism industry. Coherent and functional research is achievable through objectivity, respect of rules and ethics and emphasis on validity. 2. My Research Approach: Positive Paradigm For my research, I chose Positivism as my paradigm. The positive paradigm accrues from the ideas of French Philosopher August Comte. Comte observed that observation and reasons are essential to understanding human behavior. He emphasized the role of experience of senses accrued after repeated observation and experiments. Positivist thinkers resonate with ComteÃ¢â¬â¢s views because they enhance knowledge acquisition by embodying science as an instrumental tool of research. Determinism, empiricism, parsimony, and generality are key facets of the positive paradigm. Determinism argues that human events are caused by circumstances. Understanding circumstances is, therefore, critical for a substantial research work. Empiricism premises on the use of evidence to support theories. Parsimony implies that explanations for research should be brief and concise (Dash, 2012). Even though positive paradigm has been influential in shaping research, it has been criticized for its lack of acknowledgement for side issues such as subjective state of individuals, the assumption that human nature is passive, and it is under the prer ogative of the external environment (Hossard, 1993). 3. Why Positive Paradigm? Positive paradigm emphasizes objective approach while carrying out research. It also encourages the use of experiments and analysis subject to quantitative and qualitative data. Despite its limitation such as the emphasis on the environment as a key player of occurrences, and the assumption that human nature is passive, positive paradigm provides the best platform upon which a study on tourism and hospitality can be undertaken (Anderson, 1998). I considered the following questions before I chose the positive paradigm as my preferred research method. What are my social phenomena? Is my opinion on tourism and hospitality subjective or objective What are the sources of knowledge for this study? Can more sources be created? What is the relationship between tourism and hospitality and the environment? I realized that positive paradigm provided the best strategy for undertaking this research. First, because the positive paradigm encourages the discovery of new facts dues its objectivity, it creates room for me to inject my personal discoveries. Second, because of tourism and hospitalityÃ¢â¬â¢s a direct correlation with the environment, I figured that the environment would be an influential player in the research. I also realized that in this industry, key sources of information
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Art - Research Paper Example The different figures include Long, which is related to the Dragon; Feng Huang, which is related to the Phoenix; the Qilin, which connotes the Unicorn and Sun Hou Zi, referring to the Monkey King.1 The linguistic collection of terms has a similar interpretation in Japanese, Korean and traditional Vietnamese; it is a reflection of traditional as well as modern exchange of cultural formulations, forms and values. The symbolic Ã¢â¬Å"gatewaysÃ¢â¬ are references to the transition process for the Asian community into the new community, and is also a reflection of the social tradition of Spadina Avenue, where the situation used to refer to the displacement of a given culture replaced another, following the arrival of immigrant populations into the city. This paper is a review of Millie ChenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"GatewayÃ¢â¬ , documenting its attributes, the information needed to understand the art work, the artist, the style used and the historical dimensions employed.2 The Ã¢â¬Å"GatewayÃ¢â¬ is a part of the Colonnade Pole, which is located along at the right side of Spadina Avenue I in Toronto. Starting 1997, the Gateway was identified as the landmark intersection of Chinatown at the Dundas and Spadian Streets Ã¢â¬â by the Toronto Transit Commission.3 One pair of the poles covered by the name Ã¢â¬Å"gatewayÃ¢â¬ lie to the northern side of the intersection, and the other pair lies to its south. The dimensions of the two pairs of sculptures are six meters in height, 3 meters in length and 0.5 meters in breadth. The materials used for the construction of the different sculptures include steel, fiberglass, polyurethane foam and Endura. The sculpture by Millie Chen is composed of different casts made from fiber glass, showing four legendary creature, which are revered under Chinese and Asian mythology. The four figure forms curved out include a dragon, a phoenix, a Unicorn and a Monkey King, together with the 20 poles used as markers in spell ing out the Chinese inscriptions for the
Monday, August 12, 2019
Crony Capitalism and Political Corruption are the worst forms of White Collar Crime - Research Paper Example The arrangement of crony capitalism has increasingly been influencing the legislative and regulatory actions of governments throughout the world. On the other hand, the aspect of political corruption has been imposing serious threat on the integrity of the national democracy. The concept of political corruption can be defined as abuse of public power or right for illegitimately, usually for gaining secret and private benefits. The practice of political corruption often varies depending upon the country and its jurisdiction. Both the concept of crony capitalism and political corruption are associated with white color crime and their practice in various forms has rendered adverse impacts on socio-economic environment of a country. Thesis Statement In the present day context, the role of government and its influence on socio-economic activities have immensely augmented. It has been recognized that crony capitalism and political corruption in the modern day context present worst forms of white collar crime committed by political persons and business organizations. In relation to this, the paper intends to identify the impact of crony capitalism and political corruption on the socio-economic environment of a country and develops arguments favoring the notion that crony capitalism and political corruption are the worst forms of white collar crimes witnessed by the world today. Crony Capitalism and the Case of Solyndra Crony capitalism in general is a way of caricaturizing the relations between the two or more parties in two different spheres in a capitalist economy. The first subject related with crony capitalism may include economy or the market. The economy or the market areas may involve the operations of businessmen who own and manage business organizations engaged in a variety of activities with a prime goal of making profit. The other subject area includes the public authority or the state through which public rules, regulations, policies and laws are made and enforced (Allen 129-139). Contextually, the case of Solyndra that has been witnessed by the United States in the recent times provides evidence about how crony capitalism is being practiced in the country. California based Solyndra, a solar panel manufacturer declared bankruptcy in August 2011 after having received US$528 million as federal loan guarantees. Moreover, its bankruptcy rendered more than 1000 people jobless. It was been observed that the loan guarantee was allowed in 2009 following the pressure from the company itself and the White House. A report issued by House of Energy and Commerce committee argued that the sinking of Obama led governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s US$528 million investment was the result of involvement of Obama Administration Officials and certain key Solyndra players. It has been further argued that despite the risks associated with funding of loan to Solyndra, the federal government did not resist in approving loan guarantee to the company rather it has been invol ved in backing the company in raising the loan guarantee. The political and government involvement in such scams is one of the worst examples of Obama led AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢
Sunday, August 11, 2019
Why Does the World Ignore Africa - Essay Example Despite the abundance in Africa's natural resources it is still one of the world's poorest and most underdeveloped continents. This economy is often the reason for a number of deadly conflicts, guerilla warfare and genocides within different African states: the Darfur conflict. Human rights are also a cause of major cause as they are brutally violated in states like Zimbabwe and Sierra Leone. Basic amenities like healthcare are also severely lacking with deadly diseases and viruses like HIV/AIDS on the rise. With high levels of illiteracy, African states are unable to emerge from their developing status to provide any sort of contribution to the creation of an industrial or service sector. Poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and inadequate water supply and sanitation affect the African population. The result is that the situation is severe enough for the last 25 ranks in the United Nations Human Development Report to be African states (Reuters). The reasons given for Africa's backwards condition are diverse and complicated. While countries like the United States swoop in to prevent and curb the spread of AIDS in Africa, little is done for the conflicts ranging in the African states. The civil wars are ignored because the world sees them as wars between the Africans to seize and exploit human rights. Tragedies like the Rwandan genocide were shown by the Western media as just another incident of tribal violence in Africa (Heleta 2009). The weapons used to kill the victims were the most simple and brutal available: men, women and children were hacked to death with simple machetes. The death of nearly a million Tutsis and moderate Hutus by the brutal extremists in Rwanda created not a stir of sympathy or assistance. Instead, the UN Security Council was pressurized by its major components: United States and Britain to cut down the number of UN troops in the region from 2500 to 270, right in the midst of the genocide. The French were no less severe as they were held responsible for training the Hutu troops that attacked the Tutsis, all in the name of retaining their French influence in the region. History today sees Ramada as one of the biggest UN failures not only because of its inability to curb the violence but also because while it drew out troops from Rwanda it increased the numbers being sent to Bosnia and Herzegovina. On a trip to Rwanda in 1998 Clinton did apologize stating "We in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred in Rwanda in 1994" (The Radford Reviews). The question arising is that why did the world not do anything Many claim this to be a move to protect the white man while ignoring the black one. Western governments' were said to be aware of this genocide and yet it did nothing to intervene. So after Rwanda's atrocities why did the developed world not prevent the tragedy of Darfur 300,000 people were killed in this region and no action was taken by any government to intervene. The Darfur Daily News complains and rightly so that the United Nations has been created to prevent such atrocities and has been unable to fulfill its responsibilities (2009). So maybe all the accusations placed on the world for favoring a certain race or ignoring the problems of another country is well-founded in the lack of interest shown for Rwanda and Darfur. It has already been mentioned that Africa has
Saturday, August 10, 2019
Course Reflection - Essay Example To begin with, my first inquiry assignment talked about the causes of failure of El Hadji, the ruler of the Senegalese after the French rulers left. In this assignment, I put the superfluous reading into practice to enable me to come up with the storyline of the book-Xala. I also learnt that, through forming a proper question of inquiry, one is able to diagnose the whole story by answering the question of inquiry. For instance, by letting my question of inquiry to be, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢what led to the failure of El Hadji?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, I was able to make a critical reading through the novel as I quench to find the answers to my question. In a way, I was able to develop greater meanings of the story rather than just reading the novel to know what it is talking about. From the story of this ruler, my question of inquiry enabled me to know that greed, corruption and inability to perform can make us as leaders to fail in discharging our duties to the people we lead. These are themes from the story that one can only make a good argument about when they form a question of inquiry and answer the question by making a thorough scrutiny of the text to develop some meaning from it that can be a lesson to the whole society. In my endeavors to create much meaning in my learning this semester, I realized that one would just have a superfluous reading at first to enable them to form an inquiry question. The inquiry question I formed had to be holistic in such a way that it had to allow me to be able to diagnose the whole novel as I got to the next assignment which required close reading to give a critical analysis. My first inquiry assignment therefore was only to give me an outline of what I need to do in order to answer my inquiry question. This then led to my second inquiry assignment where I was required to make a closer reading of the novel that would enable me to answer my inquiry question thoroughly. This brings a connection of the two assignments in a very interesting manner. It made me learn that one needs to make the first reading of a text or a novel to find its storyline. I then used the first reading to know what the novel talks about in a nutshell. From there, I was able to form a proper question that could help me scrutinize the whole novel. I was able to answer the formulated question by making a closer and critical reading of the novel as required by the second inquiry assignment. In the second assignment, I only went through certain sections of the novel, reading to find specific points that would give answers to my question. This helped me particularly to know what the author was trying to pass across to his readers. My major aim was to find the authors hidden meaning of the texts through his story and make them become lessons that everyone can use or learn from. Hence, the second part of this assignment really was to identify the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s messages from the story to his readers and to the whole African society who find themselv es in similar contexts of leadership. I then wrote my writerÃ¢â¬â¢s letter which was included the steps that I followed to be able to make a close and critical reading of the novel. It also reflected on the deeper meanings from the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, that anyone reading my notes would get from them. When one reads