Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Plato s Theory Of The Forms - 1704 Words

Plato’s Theory of the Forms Travis Meyer PHI 1090 Introduction to Philosophy 12/16/2015 Plato was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and theologian who lived from 424 BC to 348 BC in Athens, Greece. Plato was born into a high class family in Greece and therefore was very active in the Athenian community since he was from a high status family. He was the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is known to be one of the best writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most influential authors in the development of Western philosophy even today. Plato worked alongside his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, laying the groundwork for Western philosophy and science through their collective work. Plato has also been considered one of the founders of western religion, especially Christianity, which Friedrich Nietzsche called â€Å"Platonism for the people† (Nietzsche, 2013). A lot of Plato’s philosophy focused on Christian ideals and aspects that are still used today in the Chris tian churches around the world. Plato was very involved in Athenian politics during his time and this was reflected in much of his philosophy, as he writes about different political questions from a philosophical perspective in dialogues such as The Republic. Plato’s unique style of writing really set him apart from other philosophers and provided a new way of understanding different philosophical ideals. PlatoShow MoreRelatedPlato s Theory Of Forms Essay1427 Words   |  6 Pages Plato was a standout amongst the most innovative and persuasive masterminds in Western philosophy, his impact all through the historical backdrop of philosophy has been monumental. Born around 428 B.C, he researched an extensive variety of topics; however, his Theory of Forms, found in The Republic, is an essential piece of Plato s philosophy. This is the center thought behind Plato s theory of forms, from this thought he moves towards clarifying his universe of forms or ideas. While tryingRead MorePlato s Theory Of Forms1629 Words   |  7 Pagesfew philosophical theories are as essential as the theory of Forms. This is besides the fact that it is generally overlooked in many of Plato’s writings even though it lays the foundations to many other theories of his. The Republic is where the theory is first mentioned, followed by discussion in Phaedo and criticized in Parmenides and Timaeus thereafter. (These works will be further discussed later throughout the essay.) Plato’s theory of Forms, (sometimes referred to as the theory of Ideas) statesRead MorePlato s Theory Of Forms1556 Words   |  7 PagesPlato’s theory of Forms as presented in the Phaedo. Plato has an idea that all ideas are merely abstract thoughts, and what we perceive with our senses is actually an imperfect version of these abstract thoughts. This is the basic idea of Plato’s theory of the Forms. To best illustrate the theory of the Forms to others, Plato explains his famous Allegory of the Cave. From the groundwork of the Forms, Plato goes on in Phaedo to argue the immortality of the soul. He intertwines the theory of the FormsRead MorePlato s Theory Of Form1111 Words   |  5 PagesPlato coined the term â€Å"Socratic questioning† to encourage the open discussion of philosophical theory for the purpose of improving said theory. Aristotle took advantage of the practice of Socratic questioning to inquire about Plato’s theory of Form and its explanation of causality in comparison to Aristotle’s own theories of causality and being. Aristotle criticizes Plato’s theory of Form because it only accounted for a one-dimensional explana tion of what things are made up of and what identifiesRead MoreQuestions On Plato s Theory Of The Forms1875 Words   |  8 Pagesevaluate Plato s response to the problem of the One and the Many. To do this, I will outline briefly the emergence of this problem in Greek thought in order to further understand and contextualise Plato s theory of the Forms. I shall then offer criticisms of his theory, both positive and negative, with particular regard for the ontological, epistemological, and cosmological consequences of subscribing to the Forms. I shall then conclude whether or not the metaphysical system constructed by Plato is aRead MoreThe Form Of Truth : Plato s Theory Of Knowledge893 Words   |  4 PagesProfessor Jones-Cathcart Philosophy 101 16 February 2016 The Form of Truth The physical world only has one constant - change. The human senses give an idea of the present reality. However, seeing is not believing. The perception we develop through the senses (seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and hearing) does not consist of real truth. Real truth is not what is in front of us, but of absolute concepts and unchanging truths. Plato encouraged looking past what is directly visible in order toRead MoreThe Theory Of The Forms Figures Into Plato s / Socrates Reflections1471 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Forms are necessary or essential properties of a particular or thing. According to Socrates, these forms have properties which give them a certain causal power. Using the concept of Forms, he systematically constructs an argument in an attempt to prove that the soul exists and must always exist. Although, his complete conception of Forms is not captured in the Phaedo, We can still use this dialectic to address his arguments. In this paper, I will attempt to describe the Forms. To do thisRead MoreSocrates s Quest Of Truth1337 Words   |  6 PagesBorn in Athens in 437 B.C, Greek philosopher Plato is one of the most powerful thinkers in history. Coming from Greek aristocracy, Plato had political ambitions as a young man and appeared to follow the family tradition. However, Socrates and his dialectical method of inquiry, which was to question and answer everything to show ignorance, soon captivated Plato. Socrates spent most of his time in the streets and marketplace of Athens, approaching people like the sophist and other powerful leadersRead MoreA Life Sketch of Plato and His Works905 Words   |  4 PagesGreek philosophers, Plato must remain the best known of all the Greeks. The original name of this Athenian aristocrat was Aristiclis, but in his school days he received the nickname Platon (meaning broad) because of his broad shoulders. Plato was born in Athens, Greece to one of the oldest and most distinguished families in the city. He lived with his mother, Perictione, and his father, Ariston (Until Ariston died.) Born in an aristocratic and rich family, Plato s childhood was indulgedRead MoreExplain the Criticisms of Platos Theory of the Forms.1584 Words   |  7 PagesPlatos theory of forms, also called his theory of ideas, states that there is another world, separate from the material world that we live in called the eternal world of forms. This world, to Plato, is more real than the one we live in. His theory is shown in his Allegory of the Cave (from The Republic, Book VII), where the prisoners only live in what they think is a real world, but really it is a shadow of reality. According to Plato, to the prisoners in the allegory and to humanity in the material

Monday, December 16, 2019

America’s Management of the Cold War Free Essays

The cold war pertains to the tension and rivalry the existed between America and the Soviet Union approximately after the end of the Second World War until the late 1970’s.   Neither side confronted each other directly in a full blown war but they channel their competition and rivalry through wars in other nations who fought for their ideals on their behalf. The Vietnam War where America is set against combating communism illustrated that cold war conflict. We will write a custom essay sample on America’s Management of the Cold War or any similar topic only for you Order Now    Despite the oppressive and corrupt government of Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, his anti communist stance won him the support of the American government to fight against the pro communist North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh, who was backed up by Russia and China. Following the Domino theory, the American government along with their Western Allies feared that communism will spread like a disease from one country to another and the power and influence of the Soviet Union will further expand. (Kissinger, p15) The Vietnam War as a dummy war between the US and the Soviet Union was an effort to contain the spread of communism which threatened and impeded the objective of the US government to achieve political, economic and military hegemony in the world. Politically, communism is directly in contrast to the political ideologies and principles that served as the pillars for the foundation of a political governance of the America, to wit, free election, capitalism, individual freedom and democracy, among others. Economically, the political dominance of communism is detrimental to the capitalistic endeavors of the US and its western allies in enhancing their access to global market for their expanding capitalistic economy. Democracy is necessary to open nations to engage in free trade and restrict the economic intervention of governments in facilitating the same. Militarily, the maintenance of a state of war permitted and justified the perpetual endeavor and investment for the creation and proliferation of modern military arsenal, which will help ensure the military dominance of the US. And indeed, the cold war bear witnessed to the unprecedented advancement of military weaponry, the nuclear arms race (e.g. Hydrogen Bomb) as well as equipment and agencies for global espionage (CIA and KGB). In the late 1960s’, the threat of communism in the US is starting to gain attention in the midst of the civil rights movement and the unpopularity of the Vietnam War, among others which engendered civil unrests at the home front. Driven by anti communism anxieties, the Cold War thus served to further justify the increased government control over the American citizens which was manifested with the expansion of executive power.   In 1950 for instance, US President Truman contended that spending appropriations (especially for military operations) is the discretionary power of the president.   (Fausold and Shank, p113). Also, the House of Un-American Activities Committee was created for the Investigation, early detection and curtailment of communism especially directed against labor union leaders, suspected government officials and other political personalities. Under these premises, the cold war benefits and served the US best in order to withstand the threat of communism and eventually thrived to become the most powerful nation in the world. The military intervention and US foreign policy during the cold war for purposed of achieving political power and maintaining corporate profit were essential components for establishing the imperialistic dominion that the US currently enjoys today.   â€Å"Russia walked out of the cold war game leaving the US alone in front of the chess board.† (Zinn and Arnove, p548) References Fausold, M and Shank, A. (1991). The Constitution and the American presidency SUNY Press Kissinger, H. (2003). Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War. Touchstone Books Zinn, H. and Arnove, A. (2004). Voices of a people’s history of the United States. Seven Stories Press    How to cite America’s Management of the Cold War, Essays

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Case Study on Inside Rio Carnival

Question: Discuss about the Case Study on Inside Rio Carnival. Answer: Introduction The carnival at Rio is considered to be the biggest carnival across the world. Millions of people are on the street to watch this festival. The carnival parade includes revelers, decorations and floats from the schools of samba (Bekri, Drira and Bouraoui 2016). The preparation for this festival is taken for a long time and special experts like designers are been hired by best schools for designing the program and the costumes that the performers are going to wear during the performance in Rio. Positive Effects of the Carnivals The carnival includes some positive effects like people coming together for sharing the experience during the carnival. The tradition of life, culture and creativity are been shown to the world by the people of Brazil (DeSouza and Courie 2015). The pride of the community is constructed. The performers show new challenges and ideas to the people of various countries. The two most positive effects are been described in details. Earning of Revenue- The global image of Rio is constructed on the fame of carnival. The carnival helps in boosting the economic structure of Rio. The carnival helps in earning revenue of 521 dollars to the state government of Rio. The big sponsors contribute by giving sponsorships to the government. As a result the economic structure of Brazil get stable and the government can use this money for the betterment of the state. Upliftment of Economic Condition: The carnival requires huge supply of costumes and other materials. Therefore, many people get new jobs in the field of designing and supply chain management. The employment rate goes high for the state. The tourism sector is benefited the most from the carnival. Tourist comes from different countries to witness the largest festival of the world The tourism also effect in having positive effect for a country (Bowman, 2015). Therefore, the carnival in Rio holds the global image of Brazil. The social life is improved as every country has some unique things that have the ability to give benefits to the other country. The revenue earned by the government helps the tourism sector as many of the places would be well developed. Set Back Caused Due to Carnival There are certain negative effects that causes the set back in the society due to Carnival. The local council that the community does not wish makes the decisions of the carnival. This led to the breakdown of moral image of the company (Fischer et al. 2014). Social Dislocation also takes place community. The amenity loss results in the bad effects of comfort, quality and convenience in the life of people. The major setback are been discussed in details. Investment are made which is not required in future: The investment made on building the infrastructures like transforming the rows into primary schools. The carnival occurs for a few days in a year. Therefore, such a huge investment made on the infrastructure that is used only for a week is not expected from a country like Brazil where facilities for the education is too weak and the people generally live a below privileged life. The buildings could not be adopted as school and due to issues like lightening and ventilation. 2) Disturbances caused to the society: The resident of Rio who lives near the place of performances as it caused too much disturbances. The crewmembers face extreme challenges for performing during the carnival. The carnival also somewhat affects the culture and social life (de le Torra and Rodrigues-Toubes 2017). Tourist from all over the world comes for watching the carnival and the culture as well as the social life gets intermixed. People commit nuisance in t he street and affect other peoples life style. The construction of Sambodromo also caused lot of difficulties for the people. The construction of these sambodromo leads to the segregation of the land (Gibson 2013). The resident faced the difficulty of mobility and accessibility while going in the street. The government has many projects and plans but they failed to implement those and focused on constructing sambodormo. Conclusion The carnival of Rio being one of the largest carnivals in the world should concentrate on giving security to the tourist as well as the performers. The video shows that many of the performers are injured at the time of practicing. However, the performers are the experts but experts could also commit mistake. Therefore, government should take some steps for the performers. The tourist should be well abiding by the facts that enjoying in the carnivals out of the limits could cause a problem for them only. In a whole carnival of Rio though having some positive effects but the negative facts are dominating the fact as the economic structure of Brazil is not that superior. Reference List Bekri, S., Drira, I., and Bouraoui, R. 2016. The Learning by the Creation of Event: Theatrical Approach, Interactive, Co-Operative and Individualizing Pedagogy of Project (The Case of the Artistic Carnival of the PPP in the ISET of Gabs).Creative Education,7(08), 1166. Bowman, K. 2015. Policy Choice, Social Structure, and International Tourism in Buenos Aires, Havana, and Rio de Janeiro.Latin American Research Review,50(3), 135-156. de la Torre, J. ., and Rodrguez-Toubes, D. 2017. Treatment in the Spanish Digital Press of the Brazilian Carnival and Its Dissemination in Social Media. InMedia and Metamedia Management(pp. 357-363). Springer International Publishing. De Souza, D., and Corey, A. C. 2015.Samba, mulatas and the social meaning of carnival(Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA). Fischer, R., Ferreira, M. C., Milfont, T., and Pilati, R. 2014. Culture of corruption? The effects of priming corruption images in a high corruption context.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 0022022114548874. Gibson, A. M. 2013. Parading Brazil through New Orleans: Brazilian Immigrant Interaction with Casa Samba.Latin American Music Review,34(1), 1-30.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Privatizing the Electricity Sector

Introduction In the recent past, a number of countries have embarked on an ambitious program of privatizing the electricity sector. While some governments have sold part of their shares to the private sector, there are others who have sold all the shares to the private sector, leaving such governments with no power to control the actions taken by the new electricity company owners.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Privatizing the Electricity Sector specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are some people who perceive this as a bold move while others have a different opinion. Those who view this as a positive move argue that, most of the government owned organizations lack proper ways of carrying out their work because of the bureaucracy involved. Furthermore, most of these institutions have been perceived as havens of corruption, since most of the governments lacked the capacity to fight corruption. Liter ature review A remarkable number of scholars have had their input on this field, where a number of them seem to concur with each other while a substantial of them differ in a big way from their counterparts. This has therefore led to lack of consensus between the two camps since each perceive their arguments as the one holding water. It is important to recall that the ideas of privatizing the government utilities was a condition set out by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in the late 1980s, for any country that wished to have its loan application considered by the two bodies. These reforms were referred to as the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) and were aimed at minimizing the government expenditure on non performing utilities. The critics of this program claims that it was structured in a way that poor countries in Africa, South America, and Asia would continue depending on the developed countries for assistance. Izaguirre (2000) claims that electricit y privatization has helped eradicate the corruption involved while seeking for electricity connection. According to Cook (2007), in the developing countries for example, it used to take months for a person to have his house connected to electricity because the corrupt officials in the main office wanted kick backs for the whole process to start. He observes that the public demanded accountability from their government and as a result measures were taken to privatize most of the government’s non performing utilities that included the electricity sector.Advertising Looking for critical writing on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The above sentiments were echoed by Vivien (2008) who asserted that privatization has enhanced service delivery to the members of the public. According to her, the private sector is geared towards making profits. As a result of this, Paul (2002) has argued that the people owning this se ctor have to put in measures that ensure that the people, who are the main customers, have their needs addressed as fast as possible. He observed that prior to privatization, other sectors owned by the governments regardless of the country suffered similar problems of slow service delivery and corruption riddled offices. Furthermore, David (2003) has observed that privatization of electricity sector has helped eradicate matters of favoritism. According to him, some governments, especially in Africa and other developing countries in the world, had the tendency of allocating national resources, including electricity, to areas they perceived as having the support from the people. According to Fereidoon (2006), such a move led to an imbalance in development because others who were seen to oppose the government were neglected and made to suffer for supporting the opposition. Therefore, according to Gerard (2008), privatization has helped the distribution of electricity in all areas of a country regardless of the peoples’ support to the government. According to Mark (2006), private companies are capitalist in nature and therefore they would do all within their disposal to make sure that they make an extra coin from their investment. In addition, Paredes (2007) has argued that privatization of the electricity sector is likely to reduce the cases of illegal connections that have been witnessed in the past, when the government was the only shareholder in the sector. According to Mert (2010), the government lacked adequate personnel to monitor how electricity was being distributed to the people and industries. He says that since the private sector is wholly owned by individuals whose motive is making profit, they will make sure that there are no illegal connections that deny them revenue by employing a good number of people to patrol certain areas such as the ghetto, where these acts are common.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Pr ivatizing the Electricity Sector specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Europe and other developed countries like Japan and United States of America, Czamanski (1999) points out that the number of companies offering electricity is more than one, hence eradicating the idea of monotony in the business. Newbery (2001) has asserted that this has created a battle between such companies, a situation that has led to a decrease in the amount charged per kilowatt used by the people and the industries. He says that, just as is the case with mobile phone companies, the consumers are migrating to the service provider with high quality services and cheap rates as well. According to Stiglitz (2000), the idea of privatizing the public sector has increased the government revenue through the taxes levied on these companies. He points out that, due to the inefficiencies of the former officials in charge the electricity distribution, companies in many coun tries used to record losses year in year out. He claims that since the new owners are profit minded, the government collection will be on the rise. On the other hand, there other scholars as earlier stated who perceive privatization as a negative move that is by no means going to help the consumers. One of such scholars is Knight (2002), who claims that most of these private firms lack sufficient capital to boost their business. The same ideas are shared by Paredes (2003) Bernardo (2004) who point out that the amount of money required to be injected in such a project are beyond reach to most of these companies. Therefore, they argue that unless they get financial assistance from banks and other financial institutions such companies may never realize any meaningful growth in their first years of operations. As a result, Zaccour (1998) recommends that the government should continue running such institutions until when a well financed company comes along and wins the tender to manage and supply electricity on behalf of the government. According to Kilick (2004) privatization of the electricity sector can lead to the exploitation of the consumers by the electricity suppliers. He notes that since the government does not have any significant control in such a company, the management might keep on adjusting their charges upward, making the consumers the victim of privatization.Advertising Looking for critical writing on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To add on that, Jordana (2008) points out that the main objective of adjusting the tariffs on the higher side is to make the company be in a position to finance their new investments. In the long run, Scott (2006) asserts that, the rate of inflation is likely to go up because the costs of producing basic commodities in the industries will go up, making such a commodity be beyond reach of many people. The issue of job security has also been cited as the main reason why privatization should be opposed by all means. This is according to Baldwin (1999) who claims that the new owners of the company have to restructure the company so that they can reduce their expenses incurred, particularly in paying of wages. According to Bacon (2008), majority of employees in the junior positions are usually the main victims, while only a few in the management level are affected. Therefore, in his opinion, the government should have the interests of its people first before it can think of privatizing s uch companies. Critique of the work From the above discussion it is quite clear that the private sector is likely to improve the service delivery to the people. However, Fantini (2003) points out that this has not always been the case because even when the new company starts its own operation independent of the government, the people at the helm are the same who were in charge of the privatized company. Therefore, these people might carry along with them their old ways and as a result make the company be unable to fulfill its objectives of bettering its services compared to the government. This therefore calls for more research to be carried out to identify whether all privatized companies perform as expected of them by the government and the people at large. In addition, Shuttleworth (2002) has observed that privatization of the electricity sector does not always lead to improved service delivery to the people. He claims that privatization has led to many people having access to il legal connection because the company lacks the power to prohibit people from making illegal connections. According to Parker (1997), the illegal connections are in many instances conducted by the current or former employees who want to make extra money from what they are paid at the end of the month. From the above point he has noted that the government revenue might not be realized because as claimed earlier in the discussion, these electricity companies may continue making losses as their predecessor used to do. Furthermore, Cowan (2004) has pointed out that there are some governments that have been regulating the amount levied on the consumers to prevent cases of exploitation by the private companies. Therefore it would be necessary to try and analyze the various actions taken by the government after relinquishing their claims on such public utilities because the writer may have looked at a certain country and left others. The major hurdle affecting these companies is the continu ed interference from the government, even after acquiring the majority of the shares in that company. Such actions are the ones that have contributed to the slow implementation of reforms needed to revitalize the electricity sector. As a result, the company remains in a stagnant position because the government won’t let any meaningful project be undertaken without its consent, despite the fact that it is a minor shareholder. The strength and the weakness of the past scholars The scholars who have carried out this research should be credited for bringing out some of the issues that are of benefit when a government utility has been privatized as well as the short comings associated with such a move. However, the same group of scholars can be blamed for not carrying out a comprehensive research that would have eradicated the critique provided earlier. Most of these scholars seem to agree that although privatization has its own shortcomings, it is the best solution to the majorit y of the government institutions and organization because in most cases sanity is restored. That is, most of these organizations are dens of corruption but when they are privatized most of them are seen to start operating as required of them. However, the same scholars seem not to be reading from the same scripts on matters pertaining to the privatization and the exploitation of consumers. Whereas some see this move as resulting to exploitation of consumers, others see the government’s hand in it to prevent such an eventuality. Conclusion Privatization seems to provide the solution to many government projects that are non-performing. As a result, every government should try and let the private sectors run some of these utilities with close monitoring to ensure the people benefit from such a move. Reference list Bacon, C., 2008. Generating Efficiency in the Public and Private Sectors. Paris: OECD. Baldwin, R., 1999. Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy and Practice. Oxfo rd: Oxford University Press. Bernardo, B., 2004.The challenges of privatization: an international analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cook, P., 2007. Regulation, markets, and poverty. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. Cowan, M., 2004. Regulatory Reforms. Cambridge: MIT Press. Czamanski, D., 1999. Privatization and restructuring of electricity provision. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. David, P., 2003. International handbook on privatization. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. Fantini, B., 2003. Regulation and Privatization: The Case of Electricity. Milan: FEEM. Fereidoon, P. S., 2006. Electricity market reform: an international perspective. Amsterdam: Elseiver Ltd. Gerard, R., 2008. Privatization: successes and failures. New York: Columbia University Press. Izaguirre, A. K., 2000. Private Participation in Energy. Washington, D.C: World Bank Jordana, J., 2008. The politics of Regulation: Institutions and Regulatory Reforms for the Age of Governance. Cheltnham: Edward Elgar. Kilick, P., 2004. Privatization and Utility Regulation in Developing Nations. Chichester: Wiley. Knight, F., 2002. Risk, Uncertainity and Profit. Washington: Beard Books. Mark, S., 2006. Energy Regulation in the 21st century. London: Routledge. Mert, Y. K., 2010. Privatization and Liberalization of the Electricity Sector in Turkey. Istanbul: Sabanci Center. Newbery, D., 2001. Privatization, restructuring, and regulation of network utilities. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Paredes, J., 2003. Redistributive Impact of Privatization and Regulation of Utilities in Chile. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing. Paredes, J., 2007. International experience in the Restructuring of Electricity. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing. Parker, D., 1997. The Impact of Privatization: Ownership and Corporate Performance in the UK. London: Routledge. Paul, S., 2002. Structural adjustment in the transition. Washington: World Bank. Scott, T., 2006. Impacts of energy privat ization. Philadelphia: McGraw Hill. Shuttleworth, S., 2002. Competition and Choice in Electricity. Chichester: Wiley. Stiglitz, J., 2000. Economics of the Public Sector. New York: W. W. Norton Company. Vivien, F., 2008. The impact of private sector participation in infrastructure: lights, shadows and the road ahead. Washington: World Bank. Zaccour, G., 1998. Deregulation of Electric Utilities. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. This critical writing on Privatizing the Electricity Sector was written and submitted by user Dangelo Ryan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.