Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Madeline Stickler Essays (644 words) - Christology, Free Essays Madeline Stickler January 29, 2016 Religion 1350-Christian Heritage Professor Ryan Reading Response #2: Athanasius of Alexandria Thesis: Saint Athanasius, theologian, ecclesiastical statesman, and Egyptian national leader, was the chief defender of Christian orthodoxy in the 4th-century battle against Arianism. Athanasius attended the Council of Nicaea and shortly thereafter became bishop of Alexandria. For the rest of his life he was engaged in theological and political struggles with the Emperor and Arian churchmen, being banished from Alexandria multiple times and wrote many significant works such as On the Incarnation of the Word and his Easter Letter of 367. Athanasius writes that the redeemer is also the Creator and God became incarnate to redeem fallen humankind and renew all the world's creation. Also, the redeeming word is the creating word, who made the universe in the very beginning for the universe was not preexistent, but made by God's Word; he spoke creation. Through free will, the fall of humanity brought about God's everlasting love and goodness sent through his redeeming Word. According to Athanasius, the Word, who received his humanity from a virgin, thought that he might break the hold that death had over the human race, so the Word restored the ravaged nature of humankind. Athanasius argues that to accomplish this restoration of man, the Word needs to assume a human body. First, as He Himself is immortal and incapable of death, then He must take a human body capable of death in order that He might die as sufficient and proper substitution for human's death as penalty of their sins. Second, through this union of the immorta l Son of God with our human nature, all men are clothed with incorruption in the promise of resurrection. Another reason for the incarnation is that even though humans were made in the image of God, some chose not to know their creator and turned to worshipping false "gods." By sacrificing His own body, the incarnate Word did two things: put an end to the law of death in human nature and simultaneously made a new beginning by giving us a hope of resurrection. This is the first reason why the Word becomes man that Athanasius explores. In his later Easter Letter of AD 367, the 39th of his total 45 festal letters, is of particular interest in the biblical canon. It was a landmark letter because it contained the same list of 27 books of the New Testament that are found in our Bibles today. To this day, Athanasius is known as the first Christian leader to compile a list of New Testament books exactly as we know them today. "Let no man add to these, neither let him take anything from them " stands out in the text because of how closely it resembles Deuteronomy 4:2, "Do not add to what I command you and do not subtract from it, but keep the commands of the LORD your God that I give you." God provided us with His word to teach us and to bless us, so that we could know and worship the one true God. Deuteronomy 6:1-3 says that by keeping His commandments and teaching them to our children and grandchildren, we would receive blessing and prolong our days. Matthew 4:4 tells us that we need God's Word to live on, that living by bread is not enough. We can, like Jesus, use it to guard our hearts against the devil's schemes. Psalms indicate that the word of God is like a light to our path and useful for maintaining a pure life. Mark 4:20 promises that those who follow the Word will bear much fruit. Athanasius sets the stepping stones for the whole human race to walk on for the rest of time and by following the Word of God, how to obey his statues and be His glory on display.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Witness for the Prosecution There has been a murder in 1950s England. Miss Emily French, a woman approaching age 60, was found dead in her house on Friday October the 14th. Her housekeeper was away that evening and Miss Emilys Ã only other friend, Leonard Vole, was the last person to see her alive. The murder occurred at approximately 9:30 at night. Leonard Vole insists he was at his own home at that time, however the housekeeper, Janet Mackenzie, says she heard him speaking with Miss Emily French at 9:25 when Janet briefly returned home to pick up a sewing pattern. Leonard Vole has retained the services of a solicitor, Mr. Mayhew, and barrister, Sir Wilfred Robarts, QC. Leonard Vole is an extremely likeable man with a story that could either be 1.) the most believable tale of a nice man down on his luck who made friends with an older woman or 2.) the perfect set-up for the chance to inherit close to a million pounds. When Miss Emily FrenchÃ¢â¬â¢s last will and testament names Leonard as the sole beneficiary of her estate, it seems Leonard will be found guilty. Only LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Romaine, has a chance of persuading the jury of LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence. But Romaine has a few secrets and a hidden agenda of her own and she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sharing the details with anyone. Production Details Setting: Sir Wilfred RobartÃ¢â¬â¢s offices, English Courtroom Time: 1950s Cast Size: This play can accommodate 13 actors with numerous non-speaking small roles as the jury and courtroom attendants. Male Characters: 8 Female Characters: 5 Characters that could be played by either males or females: 0 Content Issues:Ã Stabbing Roles Carter is Sir WilfredÃ¢â¬â¢s clerk. He is an older gentleman who prides himself on keeping good time and good order of his bossÃ¢â¬â¢s offices. Greta is Sir WilfredÃ¢â¬â¢s typist. She is described as Ã¢â¬Å"adenoidalÃ¢â¬ and flighty. She is easily distracted by the people who come into the office, especially if she has read about them in the newspaper. Sir Wilfred Robarts, QC is the well-respected barrister on Leonard VoleÃ¢â¬â¢s case. He prides himself on reading people and their intentions perfectly the first time he meets them. He is knowledgeable and puts genuine effort into each case he tries. Mr. Mayhew is the solicitor on Leonard VoleÃ¢â¬â¢s case. He assists Sir Wilfred in office work and provides another pair of eyes and ears to examine the evidence and consider strategies. His knowledge and opinions are invaluable assets for the case. Leonard Vole appears to be the all-around good-natured sort of man one would enjoy befriending. He has dreams and aspirations that will not come to fruition in his current financial situation, but he is not a complainer. He has the ability to endear himself to anyone, especially to women. Romaine is LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Their marriage is not technically legal, as she is still married (on paper) to a man from her native Germany. Although Leonard insists that Romaine loves him and is devoted to him, she is a difficult woman to read. She has her own agenda and is skeptical that anyone will be able to help her. Mr. Myers, QC is the prosecuting barrister. He and Sir Wilfred, who often find themselves opposite one other in court, have a contentious relationship and. Both manage to keep civil tongues and behave when they appear in front of the judge, but their mutual animosity is evident. Mr. Justice Wainwright is the judge in Leonard VoleÃ¢â¬â¢s case. He is fair and handles the barristers and witnesses with a firm hand. He is not above inserting his opinion or telling a story if need be. Janet Mackenzie was Miss Emily FrenchÃ¢â¬â¢s housekeeper and companion for twenty years. She has an unyielding personality. She is not charmed by Leonard Vole and has a very dim opinion of him as a person. Other Smaller Roles and Non-speaking Roles Inspector Hearne Plain Clothes Detective Third Juror Second Juror Foreman of the Jury Court Usher Clerk of the Court Alderman JudgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Clerk Court Stenographer Warder Barristers (6) Policeman Dr. Wyatt Mr. Clegg The Other Woman Production Notes Set. The two must-have sets for Witness for the Prosecution are Sir WilfredÃ¢â¬â¢s office and the courtroom. For this show Ã¢â¬â no minimalistic approaches. The sets ought to be built and dressed according to resemble a formal barristerÃ¢â¬â¢s office and courtroom of the time period. Costumes must be period specific and of note are the traditional wigs and robes worn in British courtrooms by the barristers, judges, and solicitors. Because the time span of the play is six weeks, some actors will need several costume changes. The playwright provides a specific note on doubling up the roles actors may play in order for smaller casts to still achieve the Ã¢â¬Å"spectacleÃ¢â¬ of the courtroom. She offers a template for the roles that may be reduced or be cast by the using the same actor. This template is available in the script offered from Samuel French. However, Christie stresses that the same actress that plays Greta should not play the role of Ã¢â¬Å"The Other Woman.Ã¢â¬ Even though the two characters never appear onstage at the same time, Christie does not want the audience to think that it is part of the plot and that Greta is in fact The Other Woman. Christie goes on to offer suggestions that Ã¢â¬Å"local amateursÃ¢â¬ be used to fill out the courtroom scene or even that the audience be invited to sit on the stage. Playwright Agatha Christie (1890 Ã¢â¬â 1976) is beloved and renowned mystery writer from England. She is best known for her novels and such characters as Miss Marple, Hercule Pirot, and Tommy and Tuppence. Her stories focus on mysteries and murder; where the truth is found in the details and the characters are never who they first appear to be. Her play Mousetrap claims the title of longest running play with a production history that spans over 60 years. Agatha Christie is so prolific and popular that only Shakespeare and the Bible have only outsold her works. Samuel French holds the production rights for Witness for the Prosecution.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Epistemological Beliefs - Essay Example From this paper it is clear that the rule operates on personal rules and philosophies. It states the nature in which a single individual operates and make decisions should not be influence by an external forces and the third party. In counselling and psychotherapy the psychotherapist and the counsellors should not influence the nature in which the patients make decisions based on their conditions. The therapist should respect the rule in autonomy and design the environment that that assist the patients to make informed decisions. There comes a time when the psychotherapist or the counsellor is caught between the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ right o make autonomous decisions and their beneficence duty. In the scenario the patient may choose to go against the psychotherapist prescription. In matters like these the patients may the priority and upon evaluation and identification of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy rule the psychotherapist has no choice but to respect the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Interpersonal Conflict and Effective Communication - Essay Example Based on the movie presented, there were two identified sources of conflict. One of these conflicts is the people-focused conflicts and the other one is the informational deficiencies. People-focused conflicts were based on emotions and feelings and present an argument by means of personal attack (Hammond, 2011, n.p.). People-focused conflict was demonstrated on the film when Sarah attacked the personal integrity of Hitch as a date doctor, seeing HitchÃ¢â¬â¢s job as a scam. People-focused conflict does not only center on the main characters since it is a movie dealing with emotions. In fact, people-focused conflicts were also observed on AlbertÃ¢â¬â¢s confrontation with Hitch telling him that love was not HitchÃ¢â¬â¢s life but his job; on SarahÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend attacking the integrity of the unknown date doctor; on a newspaper vendor judging Albert as AllegraÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend; and on people in the story who judged HitchÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. Actually, the movie projected a predominantly people-focused conflict against the main actor, making him the person to blame for all of the related conflicts.Ã On the other hand, informational deficiencies such as misinterpretation from different conclusions were observed. This was demonstrated on judging Hitch unfairly as a date doctor. His viewpoints about his work have been different from the understanding of society and interpersonal conflict arises because of misunderstanding.Effective Handling of ConflictÃ
Saturday, November 16, 2019
First Day of School Essay The first thing I remember about this day was my mother; she woke me up early and started dressing me and combing my hair. I remember I was so excited that I got in the car while singing and dancing. I sat in the front seat and we drove off to the beginning of my life. My mom walked me in while holding my hand and just then I remember not wanting her to let go, I felt so safe with her by my side. Just then the class teacher comes up to us, and I remember her asking me my name, but I was too shy to answer. Then my mom explains to me that she had to go and that Im going to have so much fun here and make a huge amount of friends. I stood there watching my mom walk away with tears falling down my face; I have never felt so alone. But the teacher turned out to be so nice she immediately started to calm me down. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s when she took me to this room filled with toys and beautiful pictures on the wall, I remember how noisy it was because kids my age were running around everywhere playing and laughing. At the moment the feeling of missing my mom was completely gone and all I wanted to do is join the kids with whatever they were doing. I was shy at first, but then a group of little kids came up to me and asked me if I would count for them while they would all go and hide. I immediately agreed and just like that I was a part of the best hide and seek game in my 4 year old life. I remember how easy it was to make friends but how hard it was to memorize their names. It was an extreme problem for me then because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to call out to them while playing. The best activity of the day was when the teacher took us outside and we played on the swings and slides. The best of all was the sandbox, we would run to the back of the school yard where the water taps were, and fill our little buckets with water and spill it on the sand so this way it would be wet and perfect to make sand castles with. As the day came to end I remember not wanting to go home. But that all changed when I saw my mom in the front door of the class room ready to take me home, I was so glad to see her, as I had so many things to tell. I went on and on about what I had experienced, telling my story with a smile on my face. And when I got back home I repeated the whole thing to dad, everyone was glad I had such a wonderful day. I was looking forward on going back there again tomorrow, but this time with a mission, I was determined on memorizing all of their names, so I would know how to answer when someone asked about the names of my friends. I was officially the happiest kindergartner of all times.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Mall Analysis: Phipps Plaza How exciting malls are in terms of architectural and interior design! Just by going around the heart of any major city and seeing new steel and glass structures stretching towards the sky, many people may feel that shopping malls are a perfect destination for a combination of shopping and entertainment. As the largest city in the Southeast, Atlanta along with its vast history and historical museums, also offers the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s largest selection of shopping opportunities. Among these shopping opportunities is the Simon Property Group. Simon Property Group is the US's number 1 shopping mall owner and one of the nation's largest publicly trade real estate companies (www.hoovers.com). It owns some of the area's better known malls, including Lenox Square, Phipps Plaza and The Mall of Georgia. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perhaps these could be the reasons that Phipps Plaza was chosen to be one of the most luxurious designed mall in Atlanta area. It boasts a diverse array of menÃ¢â¬â¢s and women's apparel shops, specialty retailers and dining opportunities, in addition to a 14-theater movie complex. Phipps Plaza affords shoppers opportunities to buy everything from fine jewelry at Tiffany & Co. to high-tech home electronics at Bang & Olufsen Of Atlanta; from crystal pigs at its sophisticated Ross-Simons to state-of-the-art athletic footwear at Niketown. Sports fans and even the most casual athletes who have yet to visit a Niketown store might want to take advantage of this store's many accessories. Part museum, part retail outlet for all things Nike, each Niketown is a monument to marketing like no other, specially located at Phipps Plaza. Target Market: Walking through the mall I noticed that the target market was mainly high-end customers and people who where not worried about spending a little more for a great product. There were a lot of galleries and the atmosphere was very sophisticated with marbled floors and stained wood accents that gave the overall appearance of catering to professionals as well as young adults. There were a few stores for men, but the majority of the stores were focused more towards women, with also some children stores. Tenant Mix: There was a great mix of stores, from men and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s apparel like ChicoÃ¢â¬â¢s, Parisian, The Gap, Bebe and Gucci to decorative accessories like Frontgate and Jewelry stores like Tiffany & Co. The overall Tenant mix consisted of over 100 upscale stores that catered to those who were looking for unique items not carried by other chain stores. Phipps Plaza Mall Analysis :: essays research papers Mall Analysis: Phipps Plaza How exciting malls are in terms of architectural and interior design! Just by going around the heart of any major city and seeing new steel and glass structures stretching towards the sky, many people may feel that shopping malls are a perfect destination for a combination of shopping and entertainment. As the largest city in the Southeast, Atlanta along with its vast history and historical museums, also offers the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s largest selection of shopping opportunities. Among these shopping opportunities is the Simon Property Group. Simon Property Group is the US's number 1 shopping mall owner and one of the nation's largest publicly trade real estate companies (www.hoovers.com). It owns some of the area's better known malls, including Lenox Square, Phipps Plaza and The Mall of Georgia. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perhaps these could be the reasons that Phipps Plaza was chosen to be one of the most luxurious designed mall in Atlanta area. It boasts a diverse array of menÃ¢â¬â¢s and women's apparel shops, specialty retailers and dining opportunities, in addition to a 14-theater movie complex. Phipps Plaza affords shoppers opportunities to buy everything from fine jewelry at Tiffany & Co. to high-tech home electronics at Bang & Olufsen Of Atlanta; from crystal pigs at its sophisticated Ross-Simons to state-of-the-art athletic footwear at Niketown. Sports fans and even the most casual athletes who have yet to visit a Niketown store might want to take advantage of this store's many accessories. Part museum, part retail outlet for all things Nike, each Niketown is a monument to marketing like no other, specially located at Phipps Plaza. Target Market: Walking through the mall I noticed that the target market was mainly high-end customers and people who where not worried about spending a little more for a great product. There were a lot of galleries and the atmosphere was very sophisticated with marbled floors and stained wood accents that gave the overall appearance of catering to professionals as well as young adults. There were a few stores for men, but the majority of the stores were focused more towards women, with also some children stores. Tenant Mix: There was a great mix of stores, from men and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s apparel like ChicoÃ¢â¬â¢s, Parisian, The Gap, Bebe and Gucci to decorative accessories like Frontgate and Jewelry stores like Tiffany & Co. The overall Tenant mix consisted of over 100 upscale stores that catered to those who were looking for unique items not carried by other chain stores.
Monday, November 11, 2019
BMHR N360 Training and Development Assignment #1 Al Ain Distribution Company Table of Contents Introduction3 Company Profile4 Job Details5 Job Title5 Statement Of Functions5 Job Description and Duties5 Work Performed5 Work Relations & Contacts7 Accountability For Actions & Impacts7 Job specification (qualification)8 Opinion8 How does this job fit with the company? 8 How this job does fits in the UAE needs? 8 Conclusion9 Reference10 Introduction This course is BMHR N360-Training and Development, and our teacher ask us to do an individual assignment that about finding the role of a training and development professional in the UAE. Moreover, I did an interview with Senior Training Officer, Mr. Ahmed Al Dhaheri and we had talking about job details, job title, job description and duties, job qualification and my opinion on how this job fits with the organization and how it fits in the UAE needs. Company Profile Al Ain Distribution Company (AADC) is a public joint stock company registered and incorporated in the United Arab Emirates under Law No 2 of 1998 on 1 January 1999 with Head Office at Al Ain. AADC is a wholly owned subsidiary of Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority with a fully paid capital of AED Billion 1,530,000,000, linked to http://www. adc. ae/ENGLISH/EN-T1-About. html. Furthermore, they are the only one who is distributing water and electricity for Eastern Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (Al Ain city and its nearby areas). Moreover, by the end of year 2008, the number of AADC employees was more than 1900 and they provide services approximately for one half million people and that includes se rvices to provide water and electricity, ownership, meter reading operation and maintenance of the water and electricity distribution network assets. AADC has achieved: ADAEP (Abu Dhabi AWARD for Excellence in Government Performance) for the best Technical Project. * Ã OHSAS 18001 certification. * HSE ISO 14001. * ISO 9001: 2000 quality certification in 2004 for its operations. * SKEA 9Shaikh Khalifah Excellence AWARD. Job Details Job Title * Job Title: Senior Training Officer * Section: Manpower and Planning Development * ADWEA Group Company: Al Ain Distribution Company * Department: Human Resource Statement of Functions Co-ordinates and organizes AADCÃ¢â¬â¢s staff training and development activities to ensure that staff performance is up to AADCÃ¢â¬â¢s prospective standards. Job Description and Duties Work Performed * Reviews training programs of ADWEA Academy at the beginning of each year and dispatches emails to concerned departments to ensure their awareness of relevant programs and training policies. * Ensures staff registration for the appropriate programs related to their respective fields and positions and initiates all administrative procedures to complete registrations. * Raises staff training requests to HR Management for approval and forwards requests to ADWEA Academy accordingly. Oversees training fee payments. Attends to managerial requests for external trainings designed to provide specific and on-job training and arranges them if approved by management. * Follows up on the approved training plans as well as reviews the attendance sheet employees and updates the Human Resources Management System (HRMS) accordingly. Investigates staff absence and oversees their participation rate to ensure that all employees have attended enough training pro grams per year as per AADC policies. Oversees the replacement of absent employees if possible. Prepares reports of statistics of attended programs and number of employees that have participated for managementÃ¢â¬â¢s reference. * Attends to all staff queries regarding training programs and advises them on methods of applying. * Dispatches Evaluation forms to obtain employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback about training programs attended immediately after completion of programs and dispatches the same to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ supervisors after 3 months of completing the programs to assess the importance and impact of different programs. Analyzes feedback and prepares reports and own comments and recommendations for the reference of AADCÃ¢â¬â¢s Managing Director, Deputy Managing Director and ADWEA aiming at continuous improvement of training programs. * Discusses and prepares an Annual action plan, related to training and development, with the Head of Manpower and planning development section covering matters such as weaknesses of current system, suggestions and overall training objectives of AADC. Gathers/ prepares data concerning number of employees in AADC, their grades, costs of training programs, number of training days, nationalities of employees and other information to calculate the budget required for the training programs in accordance to ADWEA AcademyÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. * Oversees applications of Interns and coordinates with their universities to bring them into AADC. Coordinates with line managers to accommodate and evaluate interns as well as issues Ã¢â¬ËTraining CertificatesÃ¢â¬â¢ to them. * Super vises the work of Assistant Training Officer. Work Relations & Contacts Regular contact with Assistant Training Officer to give work directions and receive feedback. * Regular contact with the Head of Manpower and Planning section to receive work directions and give feedback and reports. * Coordinates with all AADC departments to inform them of different training programs and oversee their participation. * In contact with ADWEA Academy to receive training program schedules and give feedback and comments on completed programs. * Regular contact with all AADC employees and their supervisors to oversee their attendance in training programs and receive their feedback. Annual contact with Finance department to discuss training budget. * Occasional contact with Universities, colleges and trainees to invite and approve student internships in AADC as well as issue Ã¢â¬ËTraining CertificatesÃ¢â¬â¢ for them. Accountability for Actions & Impacts * Improving the training plan and programs o f all AADC employees. * Preparation of AADCÃ¢â¬â¢s annual training program and plan. * Proper implementation of training plan. * Reports to: Head of Manpower and Planning Section. * Financial Dimensions: Prepares Training Budget. Job specification (Qualification) * Completed a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in Business and Administration, Human Resources or related field. * 5 years of experience out of which 2 years in training department or relevant role. * Good communication and leadership skills. * PC. Literacy: MS. Office. * Very good spoken & written Arabic and English. Opinion How does this job fit with the company? It dose fit the company by Increased productivity, reduced employee turnover, whenever it low was good for the company. Also, strengthen the company by putting the employees update with the new technologies, building a more effective, efficient and highly motivated team which improves employee morale and enhances the company's competitive position. Moreover, provide adequate replacements for employees who may move up or leave in the organization. How this job does fits in the UAE needs? They are the best water and electricity distribution companies, distribute water and electricity in a secure, reliable, safe, cost-effective manner and environmentally responsible, ensure that they provide a highest levels of quality and excellence. In addition, satisfy UAE customer needs and ensuring that all business actions are driven by their needs. Their Excellence Ã¢â¬Å"Strive to achieve the highest possible standards in day-to-day work and in the quality of the outcomes providedÃ¢â¬ . Linked to http://www. aadc. ae/ENGLISH/EN-T2-mission. html Conclusion In this assignment I learned that HR-Training and Development major is not easy and it really requires high qualifications. Furthermore, I knew more and more about this job such as nature of the organization, job description and duties and job requirements.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Public Organiz Rev (2010) 10:31Ã¢â¬â47 DOI 10. 1007/s11115-009-0087-6 E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development Shahjahan H. Bhuiyan Published online: 9 July 2009 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract This paper critically examines the progress made in introducing and implementing e-government programs and policies in Kazakhstan. It argues that in order to achieve the articulated development goals, the Kazakh government has moved toward e-government paradigm to ascertain a people-centered, accountable and transparent government.Available data substantiates that the initiative faces several challenges such as political support and relationship between political institutions, bureaucracy and citizens, digital divide, widespread corruption, lack of human resources, and inadequate infrastructural development, which needs to be amputated to improve public service delivery. This study illustrates some international development experiences to und erstand the benefit of e-government. Such experiences may serve as policy guidelines to the successful implementation of e-government to ensure overall development in Kazakhstan.Keywords Development . E-government . Kazakhstan . Service delivery Introduction Electronic governance has been widely endorsed as a solution to a range of predicaments in the public sector. With promises of decreasing corruption, cutting red tape, reducing government costs, and fluctuating participatory governance, the egovernance revolution has swept most nations, capturing the imaginations of policy makers and attracting the interests of citizens and business alike (Salem 2006).Electronic government evolves swiftly through defined stages, beginning with a web presence of public agencies (Ã¢â¬Å"interactionÃ¢â¬ ) to a means for citizens around the clock seven days a week in the convenience of their homes (Ã¢â¬Å"transactionÃ¢â¬ ) (Netchaeva 2002). This essentially creates a new ground for public sector operation. The S. H. Bhuiyan (*) Department of Public Administration, Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics, and Strategic Research (KIMEP), 4 Abai Avenue, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan e-mail: [emailÃ protected] com 32 S. H. Bhuiyan equence of stages was depicted as inevitable, fueled by technology, citizen demand, and economic realities in the public sector (Mayer-Schonberger and Lazer 2007). The prime objective of any technological innovation is to improve the quality of human condition. This cannot be achieved by technological advances alone. First and foremost, they have to be successfully applied to human society. Such an approach is significant for governance and public administration because of its impact on a larger section of the society (Sharma 2002).To reap benefit of the information and communication technology (ICT), international development agencies are paying considerable attention to the gradual improvement of egovernment, particularly in developing countrie s. The most recent United Nations Report entitled e-Government Survey 2008: From e-Government to Connected Governance succinctly illustrates the importance of e-governance: Ã¢â¬ËE-government can contribute significantly to the process of transformation of the government towards a leaner, more cost-effective government.It can facilitate communication and improve the coordination of authorities at different tiers of government, within organizations and even at the departmental levelÃ¢â¬â¢ (UN 2008, p. xii). In the same vein, the 2001 Human Development Report entitled Making New Technologies Work for Human Development, commissioned by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), clearly portrays the role of ICT for development as it stated: Ã¢â¬Ë[I]t is time for a new partnership between technology and development. Human Development Report 2001 is intended as the manifesto for that partnershipÃ¢â¬â¢ (UNDP 2001, p. iii). Again, in the UnitedNations system, the World Bank launc hed an e-government website, and in November 2002 its Information for Development Program released The E-Government Handbook for Developing Countries. Later on, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development convened the World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva in December 2003, and in Tunis in November 2005. Outside the UN system, many initiatives were launched. One was the Roadmap for E-Government in the Developing World, released by the Pacific Council on International Policy in April 2002 (Holliday and Yep 2005, p. 239). Kazakhstan was a part of the USSR until its collapse in 1990.During the Soviet regime, public documents were largely shelved as Ã¢â¬ËclassifiedÃ¢â¬â¢, and thus restricting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s access. Living with such cynic norms of governmental operation for years, the Government of Kazakhstan (GoK), after independence in 1991, quickly realized the need of a transparent and accountable government. In the midst of transitional challenges, the Gov ernment has chosen the introduction of e-government for the twin objectives of providing fast and quality access to public services and of improving public servicesÃ¢â¬â¢ effectiveness through the widespread use of ICT in the public sector (World Bank 2006).In order to measure how far e-government initiatives have contributed to the improvement of relationships between politicians, bureaucrats and citizens in post-independence Kazakhstan, this paper: (i) analyzes the background to the introduction of e-government programs and policies; (ii) describes the overall development of e-government; (iii) investigates the challenges facing the implementation of e-government initiatives; and finally (iv) highlights its contribution to development.In short, the main focus of this paper is to critically examine the progress made so far in introducing and implementing e-government programs and policies in Kazakhstan. This paper concludes by presenting a road E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challen ges and Its Role to Development 33 map showing how e-governance in Kazakhstan can be utilized as an instrument of development. In reality, Kazakhstan is in transition. Of the many transitions now going on, an important one is the shift from Ã¢â¬ËclosedÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËinformationÃ¢â¬â¢ society.Here lies the significance of the present study, insofar as it analyzes how this shift is being negotiated in a crucial area of development, the public sector. There is much to gain from a critical assessment of the success of e-government initiatives have so far attained in post-independence Kazakhstan, as it sheds light on the challenges it is confronted with at present, which in turn helps to identify some of the ways as to how they can effectively be overcome. The existing scholarship on e-government in Kazakhstan is less than satisfactory.This paper is intended to make a contribution to the steadily emerging area of study focused on e-government in a local as well as global context. Methodology This paper is based primarily on secondary sources. Three sources in particular have been explored and analyzed: first, published academic journal and newspaper articles on e-government; second, reports published by the international organizations; and finally, review of websites of both public and private agencies in Kazakhstan and elsewhere.The latter contributes to our understanding regarding the contents and services they provide to citizens. What is E-government? E-government was introduced in the field of public administration in the late 1990s, though it has not been clearly defined and understood by scholars and practitioners of public administration (Moon 2002).The term e-government arises by analogy to the concepts and practices of electronic commerce applied to the public sector, referring to the delivery of government services to the public Ã¢â¬Ëon-lineÃ¢â¬â¢ (typically over the Internet) or to the technological infrastructure required to deliver those s ervices (Brown 2005, p. 242). E-government denotes the strategic, coordinated use of ICT in public administration and policy decision-making (Haldenwang 2004).Similarly, by e-government, Tandon (2005) refers to the provision of efficient, convenient and transparent services by government departments and agencies to citizens and businesses. The Global study of E-government, a joint research initiative for global egovernment by the United Nations (UN) and the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA), provides a comprehensive definition of e-government: Broadly defined, e-government includes the use of all information and communication technologies, from fax machines to wireless palm pilots, to facilitate the daily administration of government.However, like e-commerce, the popular interpretation of e-government is one that defines it exclusively as an Internet driven activityÃ¢â¬ ¦to which it may be added Ã¢â¬Å"that improves citizen access to government information, services and expertise to ensure citizen 34 S. H. Bhuiyan participation in, and satisfaction with the government processÃ¢â¬ ¦it is permanent commitment by government to improving the relationship between private citizen and the public through enhanced, cost-effective and efficient delivery of services, information and knowledge. It is the practical realization of the best that government has to offer. Ã¢â¬ (UN and ASPA 2002, p. 1)According to World Bank, e-government means to governmental use of information technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) that have ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other agencies of government (cited in Sharma 2002, p. 607). The World Bank definition indicates the areas of operation of the concept and also lays down the broad benefits accruing out of this utilization of ICT to the field of governance, namely, to promote citizen empowerment, improve service delivery, strengthen accountability, inc rease transparency, or improve government efficiency (cited in Tandon 2005, p. ). This paper takes a wider view of e-government by adopting the application of ICT tools to the improvement of governance through building public-private partnership to achieve development. In this article, Ã¢â¬Ëe-governmentÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËegovernanceÃ¢â¬â¢, despite their subtle conceptual differences, are interchangeably used. Kazakhstan: context The Republic of Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia bounded in the West by the Caspian Sea, in the North by Russia, in the East by China, and in the South by Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (see Box 1 for summary information).Extending over a territory of 2,725,000 square kilometer (Makhmutova 2001), it is the second largest country of the former Soviet Republics with a population of 15. 48 million in 2007 (World Bank 2008), of whom 4. 5 million are ethnic Russians (Wilson et al. 2002), and population density 5. 7 per square kilometer (Agency of Statistics of Kazakhstan website: www. eng. stat. kz). Kazakhstan continues to negotiate the enormous challenges inherent in any transition from a planned to a market economy and, in the last decade, has experienced plummeting production levels (Wilson et al. 002) and two-digit (now 11%) inflation continues to grow. In recent days, Kazakhstan makes considerable progress in almost all aspects of life. Although, critics expressed concern about the limit of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic development and the lack of its commitment to hold free and fair elections. For example, the most recent Presidential elections were held in December 2005 when President Nazarbayev won a third term with more than 90% of the vote.The elections gained negative commentary from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), which claimed they had not met international standard, citing campaign restrictions, interference in polling stations, multiple voting, pressure on voters, media bias and restric tion on freedom of expression (Keesing 2005 cited in Knox 2008, p. 478). In the same vein, in 2001, another scholar also observed: Ã¢â¬Å"It is as yet too early to herald the dawn of real democracy in KazakhstanÃ¢â¬ (Robinson 2001).KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has gone through stages of decline, stagnation, and high economic growth after independence in 1990. The period from 1990 to 1997 was the E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 35 period of negative economic growth, or at best stagnation (in 1995Ã¢â¬â1997, economic growth was close to zero) due to transformation in economic arrangements. It was only from 1998 that Kazakhstan entered the phase of strong and sustained growth (Agarwal 2008). In the first nine months of 2007, KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP grew by 9. % (ESCAP, 2008). In 2007, GDP per capita was US$ 7,857 (UNDP 2007). However, GDP growth is projected to fall to 5% in 2008, and a modest increase to 6. 3% is penciled in for 2009 (ADB 2008). Over the period 1998Ã¢â¬â2004, the population living below the poverty line in Kazakhstan declined significantly from 39% in 1998, to 20% in 2004 (Agarwal 2008). The measures being taken by GoK to raise the living standards of the population have cut poverty levels by 1. 7% in 2006 by comparison with 2005 (to 18. %), and the figures for 2007 indicate that poverty levels have fallen to 12. 7% (UNESC 2008). The long-term development strategy Ã¢â¬ËKazakhstan 2030: Prosperity, security and improved living standards for all KazakhsÃ¢â¬â¢ was adopted in 1997. It identified seven priorities for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s development: (i) National security, (ii) domestic stability and social cohesion, (iii) economic growth, (iv) health, education and welfare for the citizens of Kazakhstan, (v) energy resources, (vi) infrastructure, transport and communications, and (vii) a professional state.Since 1998 all the programs adopted in the country are being developed in accordance with the noted development strategy of the country, which aimed at improving the quality of life for the population by reducing social exclusion and raising the quality of social services, improving the environment, and involving civil society in development (UNESC 2008, p. 6). Box 1: Kazakhstan: summary information Head of State President Nursultan Nazarbayev, first elected in December 1991 and re-elected in 1999 and 2005. National Legislature Bicameral: 77-seat lower house (Majlis), 39-seat pper house (Senate). Language Kazakh is the state language. Russian is most widely spoken. Currency Tenge Exchange rate 2007 average US$ 1 ? 120 Tenge Unemployment rate 8. 8 (2003) Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) 99. 5 (2005) Life expectancy at birth (both genders) 65. 9 years (2005) GDP 104 billion US$ Internet users (per 100 people) 12 Time required to start a business (days) 21 Sources: Agarwal 2008; UNDP 2007; Wilson et al. 2002; World Bank 2008. The development initiatives of GoK have contribu ted to improving human development index (HDI).In 2007/8, the HDI for Kazakhstan is 0. 794, which gives the country a rank of 73rd out of 177 countries (UNDP 2007). In the contrary, the 36 S. H. Bhuiyan ongoing mammoth development activities also encouraged, it would seem, widespread corruption in the country. As a result, during the years, Kazakhstan consistently gained poor corruption perception index (CPI). A 2008 Global Country Report on the state of corruption launched by the Transparency International ranks the country 145th among 180 countries with a CPI 2. (Transparency International 2008). Admittedly, the backdrop painted a landscape that suggests the critical importance of implementation of e-government scheme in Kazakhstan with an aim to quick and quality access to public services, improving its effectiveness, combating corruption, poverty reduction through income generation, and thus building a breeding ground for development. The state of E-government in Kazakhstan Over all situation: benchmarking Kazakhstan has envisioned joining 50 most competitive countries in the world by 2030.In achieving this goal, ICT plays a critical role by readying the country for entry into the forum of competitive world. In doing so, KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments in fostering e-government include (World Bank 2006): & & & & & Recognition of e-government as a priority at the highest political level and the elaboration of an e-government strategy; Establishment of the Agency for Informatization and Communications (AIC) as an independent regulatory authority empowered to implement state ICT policy; Creation of government agency Web sites (32 out of 42 government agencies have their own Web sites);Development of a number of corporate networks and databases (e. g. , integrated taxation, customs, pension information systems) by individual government agencies; and Enacting important legislations such as the laws on e-documents and esignatures. Kazakhstan has made substant ial progress in introducing ICT in public sector. In terms of e-readiness, the United Nations Report on the e-Governance Survey 2008 recognizes Kazakhstan as the leader of Central Asia, while the region has regressed the most since the 2005 survey.This global survey report has ranked the country 81 among 189 countries with an index value 0. 4743 as compared with 65 among 179 in 2005 (UN 2008, pp. 31Ã¢â¬â32). Table 1 shows e-government readiness in Central Asian countries. The table indicates that the countries in the region had a lower e-government readiness index than in 2005. In spite of governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts, Kazakhstan slips from its 2005 position partly because 2008Ã¢â¬â¢s Survey had more focus on the interactive and transactional stages which largely remain unachievable, and thus the scores were lower (UN 2008).Another potential reason is its weak telecommunications facility. A 2004 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) data shows that effective teledensity in the country was quite low, 16. 23 (ITU 2004). However, this number continues to improve. In 2000, the main telephone lines per 100 people were 12. 3 E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 37 Table 1 E-government readiness for Central Asia Country 2008 Index 2005 Index 2008 Ranking 2005 Ranking Kazakhstan 0. 4743 Kyrgyzstan 0. 4195 0. 4813 81 65 0. 4417 102 Uzbekistan 0. 4057 76 0. 114 109 Turkmenistan 0. 3262 79 128 Ã¢â¬ ¦ Tajikistan 0. 3150 0. 3346 Region 0. 3881 0. 4173 132 117 World 0. 4514 0. 4267 Ã¢â¬ ¦ Source: UN 2008, p. 32 which increased to 19. 1 in 2006, while in the same period mobile cellular subscriber increased from 1. 3 to 51. 2 (World Bank 2006). The e-Government Survey 2008 data shows that both mainline telephone and cellular user further increased to 19. 77 and 52. 86 respectively (UN 2008). E-government program objectives and implementation KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s e-government program incorporates a three-stage approach (World Bank 2006) : & & & st stage: creation of the basic components of e-government infrastructure, such as the governmental portal, a Ã¢â¬Å"payment gatewayÃ¢â¬ providing a linkage with the banking system, national identification system, government-wide ICT network backbone infrastructure, creation of cross-agency information systems, provision of mainly informational and transactional e-government services, promoting Internet use among the citizens and bridging the digital divide. 2nd stage: expansion of the scope and depth of e-government services (predominantly of transactional nature) and comprehensive ICT-enabled reengineering of government administrative procedures. rd stage: ICT-based transformation of government agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ operation, building a fully-fledged information society, provision of e-health, e-education, e-culture, e-democracy and other services. Some tasks related to the first stage were implemented in 2006. On the April 12, 2006, e-government web-portal (www. e. gov. kz ) was launched which provides more than 900 information services (egov magazine 2007). This portal is tri-lingual: Kazakh, Russian and English. Laws Ã¢â¬ËOn InformatizationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËOn Amending Certain Legal acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Sphere of InformatizationÃ¢â¬â¢ were developed and enacted.Interagency electronic workflow with digital signature has been implemented in 39 state bodies. A pilot model of National Authentication Center for physical and legal entities has been developed, and a pilot project on integrated transportation medium of state bodies has been implemented in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. In an interview with the egov magazine in July 2007, Kuanishbek Esekeev, the Chairman of AIC, reported that GoK had implemented, on 38 S. H. Bhuiyan an experimental basis, government databases on Ã¢â¬ËPhysical BodiesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËLegal EntitiesÃ¢â¬â¢, in six oblasts (regions).Moreover, 15 interactive services such as land register and address register software were developed and tested in pilot zones: CitizensÃ¢â¬â¢ Service Centers (CSC) of Almatinskiy and Saryarkinskiy regions, Astana (egov magazine 2007). To connect citizens with the web, till 2006, 460 public access points kicked off. Eleven classrooms for providing computer literacy were opened in several regions as a part of capacity development of public sector employees, where more than 1,500 civil servants have been trained (egov magazine 2007).In 1997, a state program was adopted to incorporate information technology (IT) into the general education system, so as to create IT network within the international education space. In 2007, the provision of computers to schools had reached one computer for every 21 pupils compared with one for every 62 in 2001 (UNESC 2008, p. 15). Besides, online instruction has been introduced into the teaching process, comparing a set of five subject schemas, and work has been progressing to connect the education system to t he Internet (UNESC 2008).The AIC is currently working to develop interactive services delivery through national e-government portal. In recent days, the Agency has been successful to deliver limited e-services. For example, it is possible to submit tax statements to the authorities as well as to clear mutual payments with the state budget through electronic channels in real time using digital signatures, which distinguishes Kazakhstan from other CIS countries (World Bank 2006, p. 10). In March 2006, a service has been launched, which enables citizens to submit applications to five ministries (e. . , Ministry of Economic Affairs and Budget Planning) and get an answer to his or her question in 3 to 5 working days. Almost all Akimats (city government) and ministries opened their virtual reception rooms. Visitors can download reference-document; get acquainted with legal base and search addresses of various offices (AIC website: www. aic. gov. kz). Future plans The transactional phase o f e-government development will allow citizens to pay for using public services via governmental portal.AIC is in the process to implement a payment scheme based on existing electronic transactional (payment) system of second-tier banks. GoK is committed to build a transparent information society that presupposes gradual increase of the portal users in number. It means this will eventually transfer public services delivery only in electronic form. As a move to this, AIC plans to provide 900 different kinds of services that are to be exhibited on the portal in 2009 (egov magazine 2007). The challengesIn 2005, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs has estimated that more than 60% of e-government projects in developing countries fail (Salem 2006). Likewise, Kazakhstan confronts with multifaceted challenges to the introduction of e-government, and some of them are described here. E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 39 Political suppo rt and relationship between political institutions, bureaucracy and citizens Kazakhstan e-government program receives strong support from the President and his office.AIC has been given a mandate to coordinate and lead the effort (World Bank 2006). But problem arises due to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to monopolize political power (Perlman and Gleason 2007), dodging the established norms of multi-party politics. As a consequence, in the August 2007 elections, the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s political party Ã¢â¬Å"Nur OtanÃ¢â¬ (father land) received 88. 41% of vote and captured all seats, and thus became the only party in the parliament when none of the parties were able to meet 7% threshold required to obtain parliamentary seats (Bakenova 2008, p. 4; Iqbal 2007). It is corroborated that political elitism is compounded by the fact that Kazakh opposition political parties are in disarray and fractured, offering no real alternative to the voting public (Knox 2008, p. 487). Kazakhstan is dominated by a formal political elite and a highly centralized and power base comprising the Administration of the President of Kazakhstan and key stakeholders therein: the State Secretary, Head of Administration and Security Council Secretary (Knox 2008).Cummings (2005, cited in Knox 2008) argued that the elite system is a compelling factor behind the emergence and maintenance of authoritarianism in Kazakhstan. Given disintegrated political context, it is clear that political communication develops in line with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s party affiliation, which limits the general trust in government. As a result, the nature of relationship existing between the party in power and opposition signals low quality of political development in Kazakhstan. The lack of political participation, however, compartmentalizes the development of e-governance.On the other hand, a major means through which interaction between citizens and politicians occurs is the parliamentary website, which is supposed to fac ilitate the top-down flow of information from the legislature to citizens, allow a bottom-up channel for feedback from citizens to the elected members, increase transparency by providing detailed information about legislative procedures and activities, expand the number of avenues for greater public scrutiny of the nature and processes of public policies and thus enhance the accountability of these elected politicians to their constituencies (Norris 2001, cited in Haque 2002, p. 38). To this point, Kazakh Parliament maintains a website (www. parlan. kz) and provides a list of basic information such as parliamentary activities, legislative acts, constitution, and list of parliamentary groups. It also provides an option to the website visitors to contact parliamentary secretariat to inform their queries and comments. The emergence of e-governance has significantly changed the nature of the relationship between citizens and public servants (Haque 2002). A 2002 World Bank survey made an assessment of KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s governance and service delivery.The survey suggests that general areas where Government can work on to improve the quality of public services through e-government. For example, the results of the survey indicated that households were not satisfied with their interactions with public officials (World Bank 2002). To improve this perception, ICT can be utilized for the reduction in the time that citizens and businesses have to spend to complete transactions with public bodies can be set as one of the performance indicators. If the transactions can 40 S. H. Bhuiyan e completed online, citizens do not have to spend the time to visit and wait at a public office, as long as they have an Internet connection (World Bank 2006, p. 20). Corruption In April 2005, the President of Kazakhstan signed a decree Ã¢â¬ËOn Measures to Step up the Fight against CorruptionÃ¢â¬â¢ to strengthen discipline in the activities of state bodies and officials (Transparency Int ernational 2006, p. 185). Against this backdrop, petty corruption in the various form of bribe taking is a fixture of daily life (Gleason 1997, p. 379). High profile corruptions are also rampant.For example, the President of the state-owned Kazakh Telecom joint-stock company was sacked by Security Council when it was revealed that his monthly wage was $365,000 (Knox 2008, p. 487). Similarly, in 2007, Kazakh Anti-corruption Agency (financial police) filed charges against the selection committee of Ã¢â¬Å"BolashakÃ¢â¬ (future) program, a presidential scholarship scheme that enables talented young Kazakhs to study in developed countries. The charges stated that many scholarships have been actually purchased through the corrupt jury decisions (Bakenova 2008, p. 94).It is widely believed that e-governance is promised to reduce corruption, which displeases corrupt political executives and bureaucrats, who, in turn, create building blocks to the implementation of e-government programs. Digital divide Ã¢â¬ËDigital divideÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âexclusion of groups within the population to get access to a computerÃ¢â¬âis another challenge that has received government attention. It reveals that only 12% of the population in Kazakhstan has skills to use PCs and half of them can use computer without being helped (egov magazine 2007), and only 12% are Internet users (World Bank 2008).To bridge the gap, the government is implementing Digital Inclusion Program for years 2007Ã¢â¬â2009. This program aims to increase number of ITC educated people by 15% and prepare the country to the transition from the industrial to information society (AIC website: www. aic. gov. kz/? mod=static&Ing=rus&id=22, accessed November 22, 2008). Many governments across the world have taken up measures to lessen the magnitude of the problem. Philippines and Hong Kong, for example, have facilitated this partly by providing free or subsidized access to computers and Internet) in designated public pla ces (Holliday 2002). Telecommunications infrastructure is relatively problematic, although there are examples of significant public intervention. To this effect, several municipal governments in Germany have facilitated the development of high-speed network cables, fiber optics, and public access to improve digital economy (Hasse 2002). Infrastructural development E-government operation requires strong technological infrastructure such as computing and telecommunications. A great deal of financial resources is involved to develop structure.In Kazakhstan, it is more burdensome due to its vastness and unique geographical structure. The government has so far (2005Ã¢â¬â2007) allocated E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 41 approximately US$380 million (World Bank 2006) for the purpose of e-government implementation. Let alone government fund is inadequate to meet required expenses, which warranted a partnership among public, private and donor agencies f or the accumulation of investments. KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s poor infrastructural readiness for egovernment also reflected in the e-Government Readiness Survey 2008 where it scored 0. 306 on infrastructure index (UN 2008). Human resources There is no denial that in most of the developing countries e-government programs suffer due to the lack of quality human resources. Kazakhstan is no exception. A 2006 World Bank report points out that even AIC, the lead organization to implement e-government, is struggling with the shortage of professional staff, leaving only 12Ã¢â¬â15 for the Ã¢â¬ËinformatizationÃ¢â¬â¢ task (World Bank 2006). To overcome the challenge, GoK provides continuous training and education to develop professionals in this field.However, given the low public sector compensation packages, it is unclear whether the shortage of professionals will ever be overcome. Admittedly, Kazakh public administration suffers from migration of knowledgeable employees to its growing priv ate sector due to attractive emoluments. This will essentially constrain countryÃ¢â¬â¢s journey toward e-government development. Poverty Given the gradual decline of the population living below the poverty line, the reduction of poverty is still an important policy goal for Kazakhstan (Agarwal 2008).However, a Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality, with higher values denoting more unequal incomes) increased from 25. 74 in 1988 to 33. 85 in 2003 (ESCAP 2008). Income inequality is on the rise and took a defiant shape due to onslaught global economic meltdown, which also affects Kazakh economy. Consequently, rates of rural poverty continue to grow, and the economic necessity force migration from rural areas to the towns, which contributes to increase urban poverty too.According to UNDP, nearly 16% of the total population lives on less than US$2 per day (Euromonitor International, www. euromonitor. com/pdf/indonesia. pdf, accessed November 22, 2008). In this context, it is argued that a large population is unable to buy PCs (price of a PC ranges between 40,000Ã¢â¬â60,000 Tenge) and be connected with Internet (initial connection fee and deposit amount to nearly 20,000 Tenge even with the state-owned Kazakh Telecom). Apart from the above, there are disparities in the distribution of basic services in Kazakhstan (Gleason 1997).For example, a study shows that due to ageing Soviet transmission and distribution lines, electricity losses average 15%, reaching 30% to remote areas (cited in Cochran 2008, p. 1), which causes frequent power cut1 mainly in rural settlements and thus upset the prospect of their social and economic life. This poverty-ridden environment is often not receptive to adopt technological innovations, like e-government. 1 Kazakhstan produced 76. 3 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity in 2007 and consumed just over that amount, 76. 4 billion kWh (Cochran 2008, p. 1). 42 S. H. Bhuiyan Harnessing privacyRapid adoption of global netw orks and technological innovations has raised many outstanding concerns from civil society over the protection of their privacy and personal data and has brought into focus the possibility of the rise of Ã¢â¬ËBig Brother Ã¢â¬â¢ (cited in Bhuiyan 2006, p. 114). In a similar vein, referring to Korea, Jho (2005) illustrates that the Korean government has faced fierce public opposition and suffered major setbacks in pursuing some of its ICT projects. This symptom worries yet growing civil society of Kazakhstan and effective dialogue with the government can reduce tension over the issue.E-government in the context of development New ICTs can make a significant contribution to the achievement of good governance goals (Heeks 2001). The e-governance permeates the four domains of government: its role in fostering economic growth and social cohesion, its relationship with the governed, its internal administration, and its relationship with the international environment (Brown 2005, p. 251 ). In each of these areas developing countries are faced with limitations on institutional capacity and infrastructure, financial resources and civil service skills that characterizeÃ¢â¬âand prolongÃ¢â¬âlower levels of development (Brown 2005).Against this backdrop, efforts have been made for implementing e-governance in many developing countries and some of them were successful. The outcomes of those practices have shown improved government functioning, better service delivery, and triumph over many socio-economic, political and administrative ills. Among them, three cases are presented below to help us to understand the usefulness of using e-government to achieve development goals. Lessons learned from the cases have immense value to reorganize Kazakh public administration in line with e-government mandate.Case 1. Brazil: house of representatives e-participation The Brazilian House of Representatives website allows citizens to talk to their representatives and to participate in debates directly through the Internet. The Government of Brazil also provides an e-participation platform that permits Members of Parliament and citizens to communicate through chat rooms, discussion forums and the service Ã¢â¬Å"Falm com DeputadoÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Talk to the MPÃ¢â¬ . This form of eparticipation has enhanced the interaction between citizens and Members of parliament.In a country as vast as Brazil and with a geographically dispersed population, online participation has provided citizens with a greater voice in the creation of policies and laws. (UN 2008, p. 31) Case 2. Health service in Malta The Malta Health Ministry is an excellent example of providing customer service online. The portal allows citizens to apply for the European Health Insurance Card online. It has an electronic patient library provided through a partnership with a E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 3 private firm, which provides citizens with a medical encyclo pedia, information on surgeries and procedures, and has animated lessons. The portal also provides its citizens with a list of local pharmacies. (Source: http://www. ehealth. gov. mt/article. aspx? art=90 cited in UN 2008, p. 60) Case 3. E-seva program in Andra Pradesh, India The Government of Andra Pradesh has a clear vision to create a knowledge society by using IT in all aspects of development and governance (www. esevaonline. com, last accessed November 24, 2008).Consequently, E-Seva (electronic service) program was launched to effectively deliver public and social services to the citizens. This program offers services of multiple central, state and local government agencies as well as some private sector organizations. The salient features of E-Seva include the following: & & & & & & & 46 e-Seva centers (with 400 service counters) spread over the Twin Cities and Ranga Reddy District. All service counters are facilitated with an electronic queuing system. Operating from 8:00 a. m. to 8:00 p. m. , on all working days and 9:00 a. m. to 3:00 p. m. n holidays (Second Saturdays and Sundays). Ã¢â¬ËOne-stop-shopÃ¢â¬â¢ for over 66 government-to-consumer (G2C) and business-toconsumer (B2C). No jurisdiction limits- any citizen in the twin cities can avail of the services at any of the 46 e-Seva service centers. Online services: eForms, eFiling, ePayments. Payments by cash/cheque/DD/credit card/Internet. The Government of India data shows that e-Seva centers offer the total of 132 G2C services from 16 government departments, and 15 B2C services from 10 business firms. Services include, among others, online transaction processing of payments, issuance of certificates, and licenses.The number of transactions at e-Seva centers was initially under 5,000/month (August 2001). It quickly gained popularity and the number surpassed a million in July 2003. As of May 2004, the level of transaction is above 1. 1 million. (Source: http://www. esevaonline. com/ cited in World Bank 2006, p. 42) The first case makes it clear that interaction between MPs and citizens through Internet helps the former to better understand citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions, grievances, and demands, while the latter participates in scrutinizing public policies and laws.Kazakhstan government needs to implement the practice, contextualizing it to the local conditions, to boost up contact between parliament members and citizens, a pre-requisite for ensuring good governance. The second case is focused on electronic delivery of customer services related to healthcare in an EU country, Malta. The dismal performance of healthcare sector in Kazakhstan (Iqbal 2007) warrants a major overhaul. As a part of perceived reform, GoK may experiment with the transferability of MaltaÃ¢â¬â¢s practice in public healthcare outlets.The third example illustrates the significance of providing public services through public-private partnership (PPP) in Andra Pradesh, an Indian state. PPP is now a common stra nd of Ã¢â¬Ëthird wayÃ¢â¬â¢ government policy, with better efficiency promised 44 S. H. Bhuiyan from the private funding of public infrastructure through the transfer of risks to private concerns. In this perspective, GoK may consider to build PPPs as a potential strategy to deliver effective and efficient services to the citizens. Over and again, control of corruption and poverty reduction are two important development challenges that are being facilitated through e-government.These issues are in some detail discussed here. Corruption Heeks (1998) points out that the level of corruption in the public sector sharply decreases in countries where e-government exists. A survey in India has revealed that, in the states where e-government has been established even partially, the corruption rate has substantially fallen. The survey has found that in Kolkata and Mumbai, two Indian cities, due to implementation of e-governance in some public sector, corruption rate has declined to 19% an d 18% compared to 51% and 38% respectively in 2000 (Kabir 2008).Similarly, in Bangladesh, one may observe that due to computerization of Railway Reservation System, the number of black-marketers has decreased considerably. Elimination of the middle-men in citizen-government interaction, in fact, is the major factor eradicating corruption (Kabir 2008). Poverty reduction Admittedly, the Nobel Peace Prize winning Grameen Bank has made a significant contribution to the development of ICT in Bangladesh. During the years, Grameen philosophy has proved that ICT can be very useful to uplift the rural and disadvantaged communities in Bangladesh and beyond (cited in Hossain 2005).According to the founder of the Bank and Nobel Laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus identified three key areas ICT can play an immediate role in helping the poor (Yunus 2004, cited in Hossain 2005) are: 1. Integrating the poor into the mainstream economy by expanding their market, eliminating the middle-men in their bus iness, and creating international job opportunities through service out-sourcing; 2. Bringing information, educational programs, skill training, and healthcare services, etc, all in a very user friendly way, even to the most remote villages; 3.Empowering the poor, particularly poor women, with a stronger voice that can be heard behind the borders of their villages, better access to information, and improvement in the democratic process. The study by Aminuzzaman et al. (2003) found a positive correlation between the uses of ICT and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. According to the findings, at the individual level, the Village Phone (VP) of Grameen Bank has contributed significantly to income generation of rural women (popularly known as phone ladies).Socially, it has given a new status and image to those women who are getting BankÃ¢â¬â¢s support to start this venture both at the family and community levels. Moreover, at the community level, it has narrowed gaps between cities and villages by enhancing frequent communication between family members. Economically, it has increased business transactions and dissemination of information (Aminuzzaman E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 45 et al. 2003, p. 327). In an earlier but similar study by Bayes et al. 1999) also evaluated the role of VP (of Grameen Bank) within the context of rural development in general and of poverty reduction in particular. They came up with two basic conclusions: first, pursuance of pragmatic policies can turn telephones into production goods, especially through lowering transaction cost, and second, the services originating from telephones in villages are likely to deliver significant benefits to the poor in Bangladesh (Bayes et al. 1999). Kazakhstan suffers from rampant corruption and poverty.As a means to control corruption and eradicate poverty, the government can evaluate the suitability of the noted (or similarly designed) initiatives for implementati on in Kazakhstan. Conclusion The paradigm of e-government emphasizes coordinated network building, external collaboration, and one-stop customer services to facilitate efficient service delivery to citizens, and, thus, contrasts sharply with the traditional bureaucratic paradigm, which stresses standardization, departmentalization, and division of labor (Ho 2002).In order to keep pace with the articulated development goals, particularly to achieve Kazakhstan 2030, the GoK has started to move toward e-government paradigm to establish a citizen-centered, accountable and transparent government. KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s past political history was linked to the long-standing legacies of monopolism, clanocracy, and cynicism of the Soviet period (Gleason 1997, p. 379). In the new Kazakhstan, situation has not improved to the extent many had expected. The country is still marked by widespread corruption, abject poverty, digital divide, lack of infrastructural development and human resources.In t his context, egovernment offers opportunities, though rudimentary at the present stage, to the government to improve service delivery across the country. The international development experiences clearly portray the benefit of egovernment. Such experiences may serve as policy guidelines to the implementation of e-government in Kazakhstan, after careful evaluations to their acceptability in Kazakh society. An important challenge to e-government implementation in developing countries is the lack of financial resources. The case of Kazakhstan is very much the same.The honeymoon period of booming Kazakh oil economy is under stress. To continue the systematic implementation of e-government even during the sluggish economy, public-private partnership is a necessary strategy for the avoidance of huge initial investment costs. 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Challenges for e-governance: protests from civil society on the protection of privacy in egovernment in Korea.International Review of Administrative Sciences, 71(1), 151Ã¢â¬â166. Kabir, A. (2008). Discourse on e-governance: Bottomline. The Daily Star. November 14. Retrieved from: http://www. thedailystar. net/pf _story. php? nid=63243, last accessed November 14, 2008. Keesing Record of World Events. (2005). Kazakhstan presidential elections. December. Knox, C. (2008). Kazakhstan: modernizing government in the context of political inertia. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 74(3), 477Ã¢â¬â496. Makhmutova, M. (2001). Local government in Kazakhstan. In Igor Munteanu & Popa Victor (Eds. . Developing new rules in the old environment: Local government in Eastern Europe, in the Caucasus and in the Central Asia. Available at: http://lgi. osi. hu/publication/2001/842ch8-kz. pdf, last accessed October 7, 2008. Mayer-Schonberger, V. , & Lazer, D. (2007). From Electronic Government to Information Society. In V. Mayer-Schonberger & D. Lazer (Eds. ), Governance and information technology: From electronic government to information government. Massachusetts and London: MIT. E-Government in Kazakhstan: Challenges and Its Role to Development 47 Moon, M. J. (2002).The evolution of e-governmen t among municipalities: rhetoric or reality? Public Administration Review, 62(4), 424Ã¢â¬â433. Netchaeva, I. (2002). E-government and E-democracy. The International Communication Gazette, 64(5), 467Ã¢â¬â477. Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide? civic engagement, information poverty and the internet in the democratic societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Perlman, B. J. , & Gleason, G. (2007). Cultural determinism versus administrative logic: Asian values and administrative reform in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. International Journal of Public Administration, 30(12), 1327Ã¢â¬â1342.Robinson, A. (2001). 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United Nations/American Society for Public Administration [UN/ASPA]. (2002). Benchmarking egovernment: A global perspective: Assessing the progress of the UN member states. NY: UN/ASPA. UNDP (United Nations Development Program). 2007). Human development report 2007/2008 [Kazakhstan]. Available at: http://hdrstat. undp. org/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_KAZ. html, last accessed November 13, 2008. UN DP. (2001). Human development report 2001: Making new technologies work for human development. NY: Oxford University Press. UNESC (United Nations Economic and Social Council). (2008). National report on the achievement of KazakhstanÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic priorities to 2030 in the light of the millennium development goals. Available at: apps01. un. org/nvpcms, last accessed November 20, 2008. Wilson, J. , Gardner, D. Kurganbaeva, G. , & Sakharchuk, E. (2002). The changing role of local government managers in a transitional economy: evidence from the Republic of Kazakhstan. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 15(4/5), 399Ã¢â¬â411. The World Bank. (2008). Kazakhstan: Data and statistics. Available at: http://www. worldbank. org. kz/ website/external/countries/ecaext/kazakhstan, last accessed November 13, 2008. The World Bank. (2006). Kazakhstan e-government program and the road ahead. Washington, DC: World Bank (a joint economic research program with the Government of Ka zakhstan).The World Bank. (2002). Kazakhstan governance and service delivery: A diagnostic report. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit, Europe and Central Asia Region. Yunus, M. (2004). Petersburg Prize 2004- acceptance speech delivered by Professor Muhammad Yunus in the Prize giving ceremony on June 27, 2004, at the Development Gateway Forum 2004, held at Petersburg Conference Center, Kongiswinter, Germany Shahjahan H. Bhuiyan is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Public Administration at Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics, and Strategic Research (KIMEP), Almaty.He earned a Ph. D. in Development Studies from the University of Bonn, Germany. His research interests are in governance, public policy and administration, public management, organization theory and behavior, culture, knowledge and development. Copyright of Public Organization Review is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B. V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
The Transformative Business Model (Additional ar Essays - Economy "The Transformative Business Model" (Additional article) According to this article, the occurrence of transformation of industry is usually linked with the adoption of a new technology as well as the current market needs and wants. This article used the example of the revolution from magnetic tapes and CDs to MP3 devices and finally changed to the iPod with iTunes invented by Apple that move music platform from the physical to the virtual world as an illustration to show the technology as a basis for changing the whole audio devices market and how to introduce a new business model in the industry and allow it to transform and eventually change the whole industry. In order to have a comprehensive and clear understanding of how business model work, it is good to start with a good definition of business model. Business model means the way a business generates and gain value and it includes the customer value proposition as well as the pricing mechanism and the way the company organize itself as well as the partnership it has to generate value and the way it structures the supply chain. Business model is an important system to determine the company's success. In the normal market situation without any distortion, the existing business model will normally reflect the most efficient way to allocate and organize resources and there will be a dominant business model in that industry. However, when there is a success of overturning the existed business model that is caused by introducing a new technology, it can successfully replace the existing dominant business model because the new entrant introduces the new business model and hence the compet itors will adopt to it and thus the industry is can eventually transformed because of the new technology. A case in point is the founding of Airbnb in 2008 and it is a new business model which changed the hotel industry. Airbnb, an online platform of technology for people who are looking for accommodation with home owners who is to share a room or house for them and it does not own or manage the property, and it is successful a new business model that has a significant growth and it account for a considerable market share in the hotel industry and challenged the traditional hotel business. For instance, Airbnb accounts for 19.5% of the hotel room supply in New York and operates in 192 countries, has 5.4% of room supply in the world in total. It earns money by taking the percentage of rent. This example shows that Airbnb against the traditional hotel business that need to own and manage a property in order to generate revenue but it can invest smaller amount of money and having lower risks as they are not responsible for the management and maintenance of the property and also the services provide. And this business model can be success as there are financial incentives of cheaper room rate with personal service. Ultimately, the introduction of new business model can be a treat to the original dominant model as it knows what technology enables and what the marketplace wants. There are six keys for successfully making a business model transformative and innovation success. The first factor is to have a more personalized product or service and the models to provide a tailor-made products or services that suits the individual and immediate needs of the customers and it causes more diversity of consumer preferences. The company need to have leverage technology with competitive prices to increase their competitiveness. The second factor is to have a closed-loop process and the original linear consumption process is replaced by the closed-loop process so that the used products can be recycled to reduce the resource costs. And it causes increase in demand for products and services, rise of input costs and greater regulatory pressure. The third factor is to have asset sharing and it is about sharing the costly assets with customers or across a supply chain and it can reduce the barrier to enter different industries as people do not need to own the assets bu t they can be an intermediary. And it causes increase in demand for products and services, rise of input costs and
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Should I choose online or classroom SAT prep SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Like most things in life, the answer to this question is: it depends. In this case, it depends on what kind of learner you are, what your schedule looks like, how quickly you need to beef up your skills, and how much you (or your parents) want to pay. Online education is still young, trying to find its footing as technologies become more sophisticated and people become more connected to the internet 24/7. And SAT prep is also entering a phase of speedy evolution, as theCollege Boardannounced recently that willprovide free preparation for theredesigned testthat begins in the Spring of 2016. But if the College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s record for (lack of) transparency is any indication, the prep they provide will be incomplete at best. They've been providing "College Board Official Prep" for decades and certain students benefit from more than that. After all, their job is to present questions that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be Ã¢â¬Å"trickedÃ¢â¬ ! So itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to keep on top of all your options, as you only have to take the test once if you prepare well. Like it or not, the SAT is probably an important factor in the direction of your post-high school life. A quick comparison of online and classroom SAT prep: Online Classroom where wherever you want major cities when whenever you want late (average weekday start time 7pm) or early (average weekend start time 8am) setting home, library, your choice high school and college classrooms customization fully customized algorithmic program* none timed practice 10 full practice tests* none (no time!) program design self-paced pre-planned (if you get sick, too bad!) upgrades every 2 weeks when the test changes (approx. every 10 years) progress tracking constant and precise none instructor availability 24/7 during class time (about 3-6 hours per week) feedback constant and updated very little *with PrepScholar When Classroom is Better: Of course, there are advantages to traditional classroom instruction that are difficult to quantify. There are some types of students who will do well in a classroom setting: students who require the presence of an authority figure to get anything done students who enjoy the high school experience students who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t much higher or lower than the average ability of the class students who are willing to ask every single question they have students who prefer pen-and-paper work to online work If you or your student(s) fall into a few of these categories, you may want to consider classroom preparation. But most students donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Obviously, online SAT prep has a ton of advantagesand its abilities are expanding every day. The bottom line is that most proponents of classroom teaching donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what technology is capable of. Most educators, in high schools and big prep companies, are middle-aged or older. Their experience with technology is limited at best. PrepScholar (time to toot our own horn!) is founded and staffed entirely by people who have been using computers our whole lives. The company was founded on the principle that technology can provide enriching, compelling educational experiences and we are constantly working to push the boundaries of what we can deliver. We arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the least biased authority on the advantages of online test prep, but we may be the best informed. Next Up: Should you take the New SAT or Old SAT? And if you found this interesting or helpful, sign up to the right to stay updated on the topics we think SAT preppers and their parents might find useful. Also, get our FREE SAT guide!
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Financial managerment - Essay Example Overhead Cost driver ?Ã¢â¬â¢000 Percentage Overheads cost Ouse Lendal Clifton Ouse Lendal Clifton Set up costs Number of production runs 350,000 30% 20% 50% 105,000 70,000 175,000 Machine related costs Number of machine hours 900,000 23% 18% 59% 211,765 158,823 529,412 Receiving costs Number of receipts 350,000 7% 10% 83% 25,000 35,000 290,000 Packing Number of deliveries 650,000 36% 14% 50% 234,000 91,000 325,000 Engineering Number of production runs 750,000 30% 20% 50% 225,000 150,000 375,000 800,765 504,823 1,694,412 Overheads Cost per Unit: Per unit Overhead cost = Overheads absorbed / Production volume Production volume (units) Overheads absorbed (?) Per Unit Overhead Cost (?) Ouse 9,000 800,765 89 Lendal 3,000 504,823 168 Clifton 1,500 1,694,412 1130 Cost Per Unit and Profit per Unit: Ouse Lendal Clifton Direct Material Cost per Unit (?) 30 40 15 Direct Labour Cost per Unit (?) 40 60 40 Overheads Cost per Unit (?) 89 168 1130 Total Per Unit Cost (?) 159 268 1185 Selling price per unit (?) 300 400 500 Total Direct Labour Cost (?) (159) (268) (1185) Profit per Unit (?) 141 132 (685) TASK 2: Traditional Full Costing: Full costing is defined as a method of costing of products in which all the manufacturing costs are included in the cost of the products being manufactured. The raw materials, direct labour involved in the production of the product and all fixed and variable products become the part of the items produced. Full costing is also termed as absorption costing. Activity Based Costing: Activity Based Costing is a costing method in which the consumption of resources are traced first and then charged to final products. However, the resources are not directly assigned to manufacturing products in this costing... Direct material cost and direct labour cost are allocated to the products in a similar way in both types of costing methods. These cost elements are allocated to the products as per their production volume. Each of these elements is allocated to each unit of the product that is manufactured. However, the overheads are absorbed in both of these products differently. In full costing method, the traditional approach is adopted while allocating costs to the product units. The approach is simple in which the resources are assigned directly to the units produced. A single volume measure is usually selected on the basis of which all overhead costs are allocated to the products. Thus, this allocation may depend upon a volume measure which may not be suitable for the purpose. Consequently, allocation of overheads may not be suitable and may reflect unrealistic cost of the products. In Activity Based Costing methodology, the overhead costs are accumulated and assigned to the activities of the production and non-production departments. The costs of these departments are then allocated to the product units.