Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Ellen Moore: Living and Working in Korea Essay

The Korean culture on the other hand uses indirect communication which makes it hard for western cultures to understand what is really meant or wanted. In addition, the Confucianism in the Korean culture teaches to show respect for teachers and superiors. Showing respect to a teacher/superior implies to not ask questions to avoid offending the speaker by implying that the teaching is not well done and that the group cannot follow the subject taught. In this case the cultural behavior of the Korean consultants is causing major problems. Since the knowledge of the Korean consultants is by ar not as enhanced as the knowledge of the American counterparts, Scott is trying to give the consultants instructions how to tackle certain problems and how to structure the project, but is not able to confirm if these instructions were understood or if more explanations are needed. In addition, this cultural behavior is reducing the consultants’ ability to openly communicate with their superi ors such as Scott, Ellen, Jack and the client and speak freely about concerns, questions or better solutions they might have. Another communication barrier can be recognized in regards to gender. In Confucianism the male-female relationship is equal to superior-subordinate relationship. This causes major tension in the communication between Ellen and Jack since his norms and values might have led him to devalue the authority of Ellen’s input. This might explain why he is holding meetings without inviting Ellen and his refusal to use Ellen’s memo she prepared detailing the progress during her absence. Since Ellen is not speaking the Korean language and needs to rely on a translator, her ability to manage the team effectively and her understanding of different nuances in the Korean language are decreased and sometimes even diminished. Missing language skills is the third major communication barrier in this case which becomes very apparent at the dinner when Jack makes a very passive-aggressive speech in Korean. When the translator stops translating (Jack told her so), Ellen is confronted with not only the language barrier, but also with the cultural barrier of the superior-subordinate relationship and has to confront Jack and tell him to speak in English in order to keep the threats against the translator minimal and to ensure that she can understand the speech going forward. Another challenge this team is facing is an unclear leadership and direction which is causing interruptions in the decision making process. The misalignment between Jack’s and Ellen’s instructions causes inconsistencies and insecurities in the team. The Korean consultants are not sure which orders to follow and due to the cultural familiarity with Jack and the high power distance in the Korean work culture, they are ignoring Ellen’s instructions. The decision making process is further slowed down by major cultural difference in regards how and how quickly project related decisions are made. The American culture is known for quick decision-making whereas the Korean culture has a very high uncertainty-avoidance. This risk avoidant culture is driving Jack’s decision to conduct further market research even if that is outside of the scope of the companies deliverables. Since Korea is a collectivist society in which group decisions are valued, his unilateral decision in regards to the market research suggests that he does not view Ellen as part of the group. The differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority make it very hard for the American consultants to gage what the knowledge of the team is and how much is really understood. The American culture has a very low-power distance compared to the high-power distance work culture of Korean’s. This is minimizing the knowledge and idea exchange which is very critical especially in consulting projects. Another major challenge is the missing group development. The Five Stage Model describes the first of these stages as the forming stage where team members get a feeling of how they fit into the team and what their responsibilities and tasks will be. Due to the constant disagreements and power struggles between Ellen and Jack, the group building process is majorly interrupted. No trust can be built between the team members and the leaders and will eventually cause the failure of the project. The last challenge is the low emotional and cultural intelligence in the group (EQ and CQ). In order for all members of the group to feel comfortable around the other members of the team, trust has to be developed and a sense of group identity and group efficacy has to be established. This would convey the efficiency and productivity of the team and the awareness of cultural differences. In this case, Ellen destroys the chance to get closer to an integrated group when she interrupts Jack during a meeting and makes him â€Å"lose his face† in front of his subordinates. In the Korean culture this is a huge sign of disrespect and she will be not able to regain trust or authority without any intervention from the management team. Q2: The 1st alternative would be to remove either Jack or Ellen from the team. Ellen’s removal would appease the Korean hierarchy and would give the team a unified leadership under Jack. Nevertheless, removing Ellen from the team would challenge the successful completion of the project since her expertise and experience is needed. Even if a suitable replacement for Ellen could be found, the person would need time to get up to speed and additional expenses would be occurred for the relocation package of the new person and a severance payment or relocation package for Ellen who would need to move to another project which most probably would be in a different country. This could possibly damage Andrew’s leadership and reputation. On the other hand, removing Jack from the project team would not be received well by the Korean consultants and the management team and the cultural differences would increasingly prohibit the project from succeeding. The 2nd alternative would be to keep status quo and leave the team as it is and let the situation take care of itself. The assumption here would be that Ellen has adjusted to different cultures in prior assignments and might be the best person to get the team back on track. The advantage of this solution would be that no initial cost is required and everybody continues in their role without major interruptions. The drawback with this solution is that this alternative is very risky. The team has already reached a point where action needs to be taken. The work environment and the tension between Ellen and Jack did not improve over the last weeks and additional resources will be needed to keep the project on track. The ultimate alternative in this case is to restructure and redefine the team. Ellen should be the sole team leader in regards to tasks, deadlines and milestones. Jack should be assigned to a specialized role on the consulting team, so that on the one hand his technical expertise is still available if needed, but on the other hand his control as a leader is decreased significantly, so he cannot interfere with the work flow of the team anymore. In order to make the restructuring of the team successful, Ellen should address the above mentioned challenges one by one, to ensure the highest possible success rate. In order to address the communication issue and the high-power distance work environment, she should establish an nvironment, where team members can anonymously state their opinion, ask questions or introduce new solutions to problems the team is currently facing. This could be established by creating an anonymous drop box (physically or digitally) which would be read daily by Ellen and topics submitted would be discussed during the meetings. For certain specialized tasks, subgroups should be created to make sure the high-power distance wo rk environment can be decreased and different viewpoints and ideas can arise from free discussions. This solution will improve team functionality and eliminate time lost on tasks not related to the project, preventing further delays. Furthermore Ellen would need to make the team aware of the cultural differences and try to make the team find common solutions which are acceptable to everybody (Adaption). Commonly agreed on procedures for office behavior or approval processes will make it easier for the employees to follow rules and to work efficiently. Team building sessions will be required to brainstorm team values, individual roles and decision making processes. This will eliminate the disconnect between leadership and subordinates while accelerating the group development. The demotion of Jack out of a management position will be potentially damaging to his reputation but will be counteracted by his new role as a specialized consultant with technical experience. The additional costs associated with the recommended solution are minimal. Nevertheless, gaining the buy-in of the Korean management team will be difficult. If the proposed solution does not work due to the missing of the Korean management team, Andrew would need to assume this position by himself.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Civilization in Paleolithic Era

Topic: To what extent does the hypothesis of bona fide, yet ‘missing’, civilization in the Palaeolithic era make sense to you? Palaeolithic meaning old stone, which is about (2. 6 million years – 300,000 years ago). Having a Lower, Middle and Upper stone age for Palaeolithic. In the Palaeolithic era climate was the pacemaker of change. As the world grew colder, the new climatic conditions restricted the habitat, certain species disappeared. Every time the climate changed the new conditions suited other animals. Each Ice Age last between fifty and a hundred thousand years as so mentioned in â€Å"The New Penguin History of the World† written by J.M Roberts. He mentions â€Å"Evidence of the glaciations and their effects is now available from all oceans and continents and they provide the backbone for prehistory chronology. † I did research and came across a website http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2004/04/040421234349. htm. It has evidence that supports the three major glaciation events that occurred in the past. Robert Tucker and Zhanxiong Peng of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University of St. Louis implicated that â€Å"There would be no communication between the atmosphere and the ocean.The deep ocean would quickly become free of oxygen because light would not be able to penetrate the ice to fuel algae. Above the ice, there would be little rain or snow because there would be little evaporation. Many organisms that lived in milder conditions would become extinct. † Investigation shows that there are at least three levels of glacial deposits. Each ice age destroyed the habitats of creatures that had adapted to the arctic condition. But after each glaciation new species spread. As time went on, one branch lead to apes and the other lead to human beings, this line was named hominids.Indicated by J. M Roberts, â€Å"The first hominid fossil found in Kenya and Ethiopia are dated only 4. 5 million years ago. † But then a French fossil hunter discovered a fossil in Chadian desert year 2001; nearly complete cranium, pieces of jawbone and teeth. They pinned down the age of this fossil, which they say is between 6. 8 and 7. 2 million years old. (Information found in http://afp. google. com/article/ALeqM5gjCJ41Mm-Li6gU9Rd4n1DXPlm7Gg . ) So as to what is happening, fossil hunters, geologist, archeologist, scientist etc. keep discovering new fossils with different ages and keep pushing back our timelines. So saying the truth we are not sure exactly when the hominids where first taking place in our timeline. Who knows what there is yet to be discovered. Going to a description and comparison of a hominid and primate. Those with a small cranium were consider primates because the brain was not too intelligent. As time went on the brain developed little by little. More common sense, but as that happened the brain grew, therefore having a much bigger cranium, which were t hen classified as hominids.Hominids developed reasoning, a sense of communication and had a system of control, which is the beginning of the creation of human beings. Primates communicate with signals, went on natural instincts, and had no system of control. Their method was adaptation to life and the environment around them. Which if I’m not mistaken is what we now call wild animals. We are the top of the food chain. We are the fittest to survival. Why, because we have intelligence, logic and reasoning. We have common sense to avoid casual mistakes that can cause our lives. Professor Paul S.Burdett from Raritan Valley Community College, Branchburg NJ wrote a document named â€Å"What Is Human? †. It describes three main parts of what makes us human and has a comparison to what is not classified to be human. 1. Reasoning is the power to think, and understand. Mind solves problems and the body has a reaction to everything but think before react. As for primates, theyâ⠂¬â„¢re mind and reactions are not reasonable like ours. 2. Language is our form of communication. Without communication we have nothing. With language we have grammar and syntax an arrangement that focuses on a relationship between words. . System of control, which keeps things organized. Having a social life. Under that category come family, tribes, and clans. Which are all in relation and come with a natural connectivity as in a connection in blood or DNA. Examples; mother, son, grandfather, cousins, aunts, including mother-in-law and so on. Now beyond that comes communities, societies, culture and civilization. Which is an organization of non-related people. People working together to make a living. As for primates, they only go with their instincts and communicate with signals.And cannot go any much further than that. So my definition for being a human is one who exhibits a sense of humanity, compassion, civilization, and consideration towards mankind. An understanding, organiz ation, and sense of communication. So is it possible that such a civilization could have existed? There was a point in time where the hominids decided to just settle down. Having water, and food near them. So they did not have to travel far. In the process tools were created, fire, a sense a religion, a stable living style, a sense of emotion, farming.All of these things is what started civilization. And civilization was not established until the Upper Palaeolithic Era. Without everything being done, no civilization would have been created. Till this day discoveries are made. The only way to know if something really existed is by evidence. And by evidence I mean fossils, skeletons, art, grave goods, â€Å"ARTIFACTS! † Artifacts is all we have. The only problem is that from what I have understood is that we have more evidence going towards the Upper Palaeolithic Era. In J. M Roberts book (Book 1, Chapter 2, last paragraph on pg. 1) he stated, â€Å"To separate Upper and Lower Palaeolithic is easy; the division represents the physical facts†¦ †¦ the most recent and therefore fossils and artifacts found among them are later found then lower. † Meaning more evidence is found in the Upper. â€Å"Almost all the artifacts that survived in Palaeolithic are made from stone, none are made of metal†¦ †¦ which stone artifacts provide the largest significant body of evidence. † So from what is seems stones where most likely to be preserved then metal. Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food producing techniques.The making of small groups of hunter, gatherers that had hitherto dominated human history into sedentary societies based in built up villages and towns, which radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food crop cultivation that allowed extensive surplus food production. These developments provided the basis for high population density settlements, specialize d and complex labor diversification, trading economies, the development of art, architecture, and culture. All these things are well described in a book called â€Å"The Breakout: The Origins Of Civilization† written by Martha Lamberg-Karlovsky.The Revolution developed independently in different parts of the world, not just in the Fertile Crescent. The Mediterranean climate has a long dry season with a short period of rain, which made it suitable for small plants with large seeds, like wheat and barley. The Oasis Theory, originally proposed by Raphael Pumpelly in 1908, maintains that as the climate got drier due to the Atlantic depressions shifting northward, communities contracted to oases where they were forced into close association with animals, which were then domesticated together with planting of seeds.Agriculture, known as farming. Which was turning point. No more long travel, everything at hand and the sense of trading. With trading came leader, which meant governmen t. With all that said societies. In this part of time, known art was a way of recording things in their time. There were caves that have been found with carved drawings. Showing life itself, and how everything was before. Art created by stones, mud as paint, and drawings on top of other drawings creating stories that have yet to be discovered.Every time we think we found the oldest society another older one pops up. Everyday life was not able to be recorded. Communication was not able to be recorded. Records in that era took a lot of time and dedication. So in our sense, was there civilization in the Palaeolithic Era? I think there was. Even though there isn’t much evidence, it actually makes sense. Like in the quote, â€Å"If a tree falls in the forest but no one is there to hear it, does it still make a sound? † Just because we did not witness it, it does not mean it did not exist.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Censorship - Banning Books

Literature has always been an important part of human life. We use ink and paper to express our emotions; we sprinkle our souls on dry wood pulp. Writing has taken the form of liberation and pleasure since the beginning of written words. You can tell a story and make yourself a hero. You can live all your fantasies. You can explore all thoughts, emotions, emotions and share them with the outside world. But do not think you are jealous just because you can write. It does not matter who you are. Since pen was first put on paper, there was some form of censorship. The latest review is to prohibit books that are considered inappropriate. This type of behavior not only infringes upon the rights of American citizens, but also violates the student's right to study. Even though the government can try to ban all inappropriate books, the desire to read them will increase. Often times before the banning of family problems in books, the federal government tried to reduce the flow of inappropriat e information in the source, often forgotten. ACLU lawyer wrote as follows. The use of certain books such as The New Jim Crow is forbidden. For example, the use of hardcover books is prohibited. Statement continues: Several Caucasian abolitionists argue that they are fully naturalized as US citizens or send back the previous slave to Africa. Each immigrant family will offer 25 acres of vacant land and 10 acres of singles to Black Republic. Many people think that book reviews, tasks, and writing prohibitions are what happened in the distant past. This is certainly not the case, as you will see it from the ban on my recent book review. You may remember all the controversy about Harry Potter's book early in the 21st century. The age level of the book does not guarantee that someone will not try to review it. The focus seems to be more challenging to children and adolescent (YA) books than to others, but it always restricts access to books from certain adult books, usually high school p rofessors I am trying. Most complaints are made by parents and directed to public libraries and schools. The book does not seem to be an old concept for many people. But as it is getting old, censorship remains an important part of American literary culture. Banned books usually succeed at the level of young adult literature. Parents and other opponents use the review process to work to protect children and young people from books that they think are dangerous. - Books are forbidden in history / reviewed. For example, the Catholic Church created an index of the prohibition in the 16th century. The purpose of this index is to prevent ordinary people from reading books that violate the church doctrine. Several of Galileo's books are on this list. Everyone who reads or sells these books is severely punished, tortured, even even killed. However, even after 500 years writing prohibition has been done yet

Gulf Regional Legal Environment of Business 3 Essay

Gulf Regional Legal Environment of Business 3 - Essay Example Competition law is part of the legal environment of business in Gulf region that requires numerous amendments and enforcement. Competition laws facilitate the entry of foreign firms in the economy and ensure that the economy gains from increased product innovation and high quality products. Fair competition laws also facilitate bilateral and regional cooperation between several states thus strengthening both the economic and political relations. Oman has certain anti-competitive laws that hinder free trade in the economy. Examples of the anti-competitive laws include subsidies to the national companies, exempt of import custom duties for national companies dealing with agriculture and manufacturing and requirement that foreign entities cannot have 100 percent of shareholding of the investment. In addition, Oman grants tax exemptions to local shipping companies and uses discriminative tariffs that hinder fair competition within the Gulf region (Kawai & Wignaraja, 2011). 2. Free trade agreements One of the agreements that Oman has entered with other countries is the Gulf Cooperation Council free trade agreement that consists of other countries such as Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar (Ramady, 2012). The free trade agreement is committed to improvement of investments and trade in goods and services. The agreement aims at elimination of both tariff and non-tariff barriers and expediting the movements of goods and services between the two countries (European Commission, 2013). Accordingly, members of the G.C.C acknowledge that anti-competitive practices restrict trade among the countries and each member is required to implement competition laws that ensure free and fair trading practices (European Commission, 2013). The GCC agreement aims at attaining liberalization of trade and promoting competition among the member countries. The parties to the agreement appreciate that anticompetitive trade practices will restrict the trade among the countries and the parties must maintain competitive laws. The agreement also aims at fostering common scientific progress in fields such as economy and trade and setting up of joint ventures. a. Importance and advantages of the agreements The G.C.C free trade agreement is expected to provide new export opportunities for Oman exports within the bloc. The trade agreement also aims at protecting intellectual property through allowing Oman to establish increased protection for copyrights, patents and trademarks (, 2012). Accordingly, Oman will conduct government procurement procedures in free and transparent manner without any discriminatory practices. The free trade agreement will spur economic growth in Oman and entrench democratic ideals that are essential for peace and stability in the Gulf region (BBC News, 2013). Ramazani & Kechichian (1988) asserts that he G.C.C free trade agreement will increase the competitiveness of Oman exports through improving the access of the global markets. The agreement also will strengthen the role of the private sector in the economic development of the country. The trade agreement will enable Oman to lower the production process and increase the efficiency in the utilisation of the available raw materials such as oil reserves. All the products manufactured within the member countries are allowed to move freely within the member

Sunday, July 28, 2019

HND Managing People Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

HND Managing People - Assignment Example Let me explain why. Probably due to the pressures in the industry and due to the aspiration of the company to gain competitive edge over its competitors, Bankco enforced culture shift from being operation-oriented to sales-oriented company. With the introduction of advanced technological developments to the organisation that considerably improves productivity, computers and other state-of-the-art gadgets have replaced huge numbers of labourers. The implementation of modern business strategies and techniques also contributed to the considerable downsizing of its labour force. Because of the implementation of these two innovations, Bankco's has been restructured from 7 regions and 54 districts to 3 regions and 21 areas. This culture shift requires a collateral implementation of enhanced training strategies for the remaining employees to improve their skills in using computers and other technological devices to become more productive. Bankco's upper management realised the necessity of this move. It then increased the company's budget on training and development, which is a good move. We are now seeing Bankco as a company that is really serious in infusing technological developments in its operations. However, I believe that this move prematurely done since the HR department has not made any preparatory moves that will introduce the change into the organisation. Instead of orienting the managers and staff on the impending changes in the company first, what the HR department did was to assert the training methods that it deems fit for the organisation without any initial consultation. What resulted was a conflict of views regarding the appropriate training and learning methods. In the HR department's standpoint; interactive, modular, and computer-based learning methods are more effective training methods. According to the HR department it is the individual who would actively seek to further his or her own development and would take responsibility for this. Bankco's HR Department's philosophy with when it comes to learning is that the desire for learning comes from one's own initiative. What the whole organisation, must do is "to move to a situation where it is not the business tra ining the staff, but it is the business providing opportunities within which the staff can learn and grow.' On the other hand, experiential, on-the-job, practical learning coupled with regular courses and traditional teaching methods that engender the 'back-to-school' effect are the methods favoured by the managers. For them, it is the experiences not the simulated realities found in training that will improve learning. "Individuals learn," they say, 'by absorbing information, by making it interesting, relating it to real life situations, absorption involving recollection, using key words, revisions, competition, and reward in the end.' These differences in learning philosophy between HR and the managers should have been considered before implementation of new training methods took place. Despite the favourable impression of the managers on efforts of the organization in encouraging training and learning based on the evaluation of training and learning methods (a large portion of Bankco's managers believed that the organisation encouraged them to learn and to develop themselves), on a closer look, however, they considered this effort as an 'expectation' of the upper management for them to learn, to always be updated and to be prompt in responding to the new

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Use of Financial Statements in Food and Beverage Operation Assignment

Use of Financial Statements in Food and Beverage Operation - Assignment Example Tax authorities need to evaluate the financial statements to determine the level of taxation to be applied to the business. The balance sheet is an important financial statement that indicates the position of a food and beverage enterprise’s assets and liabilities as well as the shareholders’ equity. In a balance sheet, the difference between assets and liabilities equals equity (Reid & Botanic, 2006). Income statements contain operating costs that are categorised as direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those incurred in running specific functions such as casual labour and raw material supplies while indirect costs are non-specific expenses that support the entire business such as depreciation, cleaning and general office supplies. These expenses are considered in determining the shareholder incomes per share. The revenue earned in a particular period of time is also contained in the income statements. They help the owner of the food and beverage operation to know if the business made a profit as well as whether the profits attained conformed to the targets set for the business. Income statements also help the owner to determine whether the profits decreased or increased compared to earlier periods. If the owner is not the manager, he/she can use the income statements to appraise the restaurant manager’s performance. Cash-flow financial statements are important in tra cking the movement of monies in and out of the business. They can be used to identify irregular payments and also to track the business’s capacity to settle outstanding bills. The owner of the food and beverage operations can evaluate the net cash increase or decrease to determine if the business is achieving the growth strategy (Bowie & Buttle, 2004). It is important to recognize and appraise the need for a product in the company. The product may be necessitated by finished stock, innovations or demand from customers. Specifications should be done to ensure that all the necessary details are taken care of to offer customers the best value.  Ã‚  

Friday, July 26, 2019

Corporate governenance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Corporate governenance - Essay Example lowed by series of consequences in the capital markets including managerial, and accounting corruption or weakness of the internal control systems panel on activities of the financial institutions. Based on the above the global economy has witnessed the introduction of new terminology namely Corporate Governance to detect the weakness in the companies’ control. The concept of the Corporate Governance has been developed to direct the management and business inside and outside the company. The Corporate Governance function enables the company to ensure the existence of efficient systems, sets out responsibilities and duties of the board of directors’ members and the executive management of the company, considering that interest of the shareholders irrespective of their shareholding and the interests of the different stakeholders in the company should be protected (Menon and Joanne1997, p 564). The responsibility of the Corporate Governance is maintaining interest such genuine management of resources and engaging in environmental awareness of the shareholders and achieve fairness among them, strengthening the role of disclosure and transparency, and reiterate role of the management. The laws and regulatory policies of the business in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have not given considerable attention to the concept of the Corporate Governance, except after the crisis of the Saudi Stock Exchange which took place in the second half of the year 2006 particularly 1/7/2006. In light of the flourished Saudi economy due to oil price soaring and availability of the cash along with the loans borrowing from the banks, individuals began to speculate in shares through availing loans from the banks and not from their own savings. Lack of transparencies in the market, misleading rumors, weakness of control from the Capital Market Authority and management of company’s speculations on the poor companies in terms of the financial position have increased (Ian and William 2005,

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Responding to a Solicitation- Contract Administration and Management Essay

Responding to a Solicitation- Contract Administration and Management - Essay Example ted copy of his or her commercial pricelist(s) along with the appropriate Special Item Number next to each item that is provided or offered (Stanberry, (2012). On top of this, the vendor must incorporate the Commercial Sales Practice Format (CSP-1), as well as provide or give details regarding his or her pricing history. Last but not least, the vendor must accord close attention to the prices incorporated in his or her submission, as well as be in the position and ready to negotiate his or her best offer for the government. Also, all services or products that are offered in his or her pricelist should actually be within the range of the solicitation on top of the specific Special Item Number being used. In conclusion, the vendor should take the time to comprehend all the requirements entailed in the solicitation (Stanberry, (2012). As well, once on contract, his or her company will be liable for sticking to all pertinent portions of the FAR. Responsibility –The vendor should have a healthy financial state. That is, his or her financial resources should be readily available as well as have a good record of performance in the past (Stanberry, (2012). Pricing Analysis as well as Review of Terms – the prices quoted should also be fair and reasonable, and should be accompanied with appropriate data that not only support but also explain the pricing

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Classical And Scientific Schools Of Management Theory Essay - 26

Classical And Scientific Schools Of Management Theory - Essay Example The top management agrees on the objectives, and the strategies and tactics, to achieve the goals they set for the enterprise they lead, by employing a large workforce to produce the goods, and provide the services for consumers the world over. Management theory with the concern for how to get the most out of front-line workers in industrial and commercial concerns became very much a twentieth-century phenomenon. Earlier, following the industrial revolution, large concentrations of workers were needed in mills and factories to mass produce goods which replaced agricultural and craftwork hitherto produced in the small rural family or communal units. In those days the managers were authoritarian and tyrannical when slave labor or indentured labor including child labor at starvation wages could be deployed at the behest of the ruling, the capitalist class. The world has changed since, and owners of capital can no longer treat labor as a disposable commodity. Trade Unions, Communism, and universal education along with worldwide markets meant that the old methods of almost forced, the repetitive back-breaking labor of the ‘dark satanic mills’ could no longer be sustained. New disciplines like economics, psychology, and sociology sprang up. These social sciences were called upon to build theories of management and organizational behavior that would explain and help understand the dynamics of an ever more sophisticated and demanding workforce. Early theories of management exemplified by the work of Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911) had been described colloquially as the ‘carrot and stick’ approach. Taylor coined the term ‘scientific management’ for his theory which was later simply referred to as ‘Taylorism’. He sought to break down tasks to their simplest elements so that an assembly line robot could perform them without any need for thinking.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Mary Todd and Abraham Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mary Todd and Abraham - Essay Example The letter reveals that the First Lady was more than a wife to the President. During that time, she was also his adviser, assistant, and bearer of blessings for the people. Where Abraham cannot be, Mary Todd is there so that the people will have someone to talk to about their problems and woes. Mary Todd is given the liberty to act out on her own, but she does not abuse it and still calls to Abraham for the final say. Their relationship as a couple and as partners is a healthy give-and-take one. The letter reveals that Abraham Lincoln regards his family just like he would do his country. Mary Todd knows that Abraham is not accustomed to writing, yet she still writes to update him, and although no reply is imminent, she still intends to tell him what is going on with their family. In return, Abraham expresses his love for his family by making sure that they are well and that they have everything that they need. When Mary Todd asked for money, she assumed that Abraham will send it, whi ch means that Abraham tends to their needs just like he oversees the needs of everyone. After reading the letter, it can be concluded that the study of primary documents is important because it conveys a lot about the writer of the letter and the intended recipient.

There Is No Truth in Advertising Essay Example for Free

There Is No Truth in Advertising Essay Advertising is omnipresent and inescapable in today’s world. It is claimed that an average person is exposed to 2000 advertisements every day. Due to its all-pervasive nature, advertising has a huge impact on our minds, both consciously and unconsciously. However, the credibility of today’s advertisements should be questioned. As media companies and advertising agents become increasingly profit-driven, advertisements now contain false information, promote biased ideas and sometimes even deveice consumers, in order to sell products. Even some non-commercial advertisements are not telling the complete truth, in order to grab people’s attentions. Many advertisements tend to tell â€Å"partial truth† about their products, which equates to false information that would mislead viewers. To increase revenue and maximise profits, advertising agents use the tactic of â€Å"partial truths† that make use of viewers’ assumptions. Advertising agents skillfully design the advertisements that will only reveal the seemingly appealing characteristics of the product, and deliberately leave the necessary elaboration and explanation, which is the other half of the truth, unmentioned. An advertisement for some cat food purported that it contains a substaintial level of phosphorus, which would lead the viewers to think that more phosphorus is good for cats. But what the advertisements did not mention was that cats actually do not need phosphorous in their diet. Another cigarette advertisement in Bangladesh said that smoking helped to relieve the pain of giving birth, which is true because somking decreases the size of babies. Its detrimental effect on babies was deliberately ignored by the advertising agent. These â€Å"partial truth† are not truths at all. They are misleading lies which, if the consumers believe blindly, may even harm their health. Also, advertisements always ignore the moral truth of gender equality. They contain some stereotypes about gender roles most of the time. While men are usually portrayed as strong and masculine, women are almost always depicted as fragile, weak and feminine. Some advertisements convey the idea that women should devote a lot of money, time and effort into the pursuit of ideal beauty, to please men. There is even objectification of women that turns women into things and objects, which is dehumanising and unrespectful. One advertisement writes â€Å"If I did not lose 49 pounds, I could never be married by now†, which is saying that women should focus on their figure in order to find a husband. Another beer advertisement turns a lady into a robot that contains beer in its belly. While these â€Å"innovate† advertisements may be effective in promoting the products, they are without doubt instilling people with the wrong idea that women and men are not equal in this society, that women is somewhat inferior, which are not the truth. [However, they do reflect and reinforce existing ideas of gender roles and inequality, which is the sad reality.] Furthermore, advertisements deceive us into believing that by buying certain products, we are able to obtain a desirable lifestyle, gain social status or get into certain social community. Advertisements are not selling merely products, but also the lifestyles, ideas, calues and status that the company want to associate the product with. By constantly linking the products with a certain lifestyle, the advertisements make the consumers believe that buying the product is one easy way to get that desired lifestyle. For instance, Louis Vuitton’s advertisements always show celebrities holding their handbags, enjoying themselves on holiday. This makes many nouveau riche think that having one of such bags would get themselves into the moneyed class and the lifestyle of the rich. However, it is without doubt that buying certain products does not change who you are or where you belong to. It is just a deception created by the advertisements. Some people may argue that advertisements for some cutting-edge technical products that truly benefit people, such as tablets and smartphones, do contain truths. I do not deny that these advertisements do contain some facts, such as the new features of the products, the improved functions and so forth. However, being advertisements, they are more or less exaggerated in order to achieve the ultimate goal of selling. Advertisements of this kind, such as the advertisement for the new iPad, always contain the key words like â€Å"all new†, â€Å"revoluntionary† or â€Å"unprecedented†, but never mention the limitations and the flaws [built-in obsolescence]. Only after a few months when the company launches a newer model would it start to point out what flaws the previous model has. This is the nature of advertising. There is no complete truth. Non-commercial advertisements are believed by many to be absolute true. They argue that these advertisements campaigning for good causes have no motive to lie. However, in order to create greater influence and to raise people’s awareness, non-commercial advertisements also tend to exaggerate and oversimplify the situation. For instane, the advertisements that help Project Hope in China to raise fund often show children who are eager to learn sitting in shabby wooden classrooms, dressed poorly. Though there are many children like this in the rural area, not all of them are passionate about learning, and not all classrooms are in such poor condition. In order to grab public attention, these advertisements are wise to show the pooresr scene to the public. But this kind of oversimplified version is definitely not the complete truth. [emotional manipulation] In all, advertising by nature aims to grab public attention. In oder to do this, there is always some extent of exaggeration. This is how advertisements work. As long as there are no false information or deceptions that mislead people, advertising with some extent of exaggeration is acceptable. People should learn to be discriminating views ant not just believe advertisements blindly.

Monday, July 22, 2019

300 - Rationalism vs Empiricism - Summary and History Essay Example for Free

300 Rationalism vs Empiricism Summary and History Essay What is reality really like? A current running through much of the philosophical thinking around the time of Socrates and Plato was that there is a difference between how the world appears and how it is. Our senses reveal one layer of reality but it is our minds that penetrate deeper. The world of appearances is a world in flux but underneath there must be a stable reality. For there is much that is unchanging. We recognise kinds of things – badgers, daffodils, mountains – and whilst members of these kinds are born, change and die, and differ from one another in ever so many ways, the kind-defining essence doesnt change. We see here the key rationalist idea that knowledge is a priori knowledge of necessary truths Plato said that kinds were defined by the transcendental forms. He presented a number of arguments for the existence of these things. Prior to our incarnation, our souls existed in the realm of forms where we learned about these essences. In our terrestrial state, we cannot recall what we know. Socrates considered himself a midwife to knowledge instead of a teacher, helping his interlocutors to draw out what they dont know that they know. The example of Meno and the slave-boy shows this idea clearly. Like many philosophers, Plato was also fascinated by mathematics. We are able to tap into a universe of truths that are non-sensible: we do not see numbers and we do not see the perfect geometric forms. Once again, we see the difference between the powers of the mind and the powers of the senses. It was in the 17th century that the debate between the rationalists and the empiricists came to a head. Philosophers such as Descartes and Leibniz emphasised the power of reason over the senses. Descartes argued that our senses were fallible and that we could not rule out the possibility of the demon deception hypothesis on the basis of sensory evidence alone. Descartes argued that he knew he existed, as a mind, on the basis of reflection alone: when I think, I cannot fail to be aware of myself as existing as that thinker (cogito, ergo sum). Having proved that he exists, Descartes argued that God exists. Since God is no deceiver, he would not have given us senses that systematically mislead. But let us not overemphasise the powers of the senses. Descartes argued that even with material things, it is reason that exposes their essences. In his piece of wax reasoning, he argued that the senses merely reveal a succession of impressions: it is reason that grasps the underlying and enduring substance as extended (and filled space). Plato and Descartes believed that we are born with concepts and knowledge. In Descartes case, there was a religious motive: we are all born in the image of God. We discover more about the world primarily through metaphysical reflection. The philosopher Francis Bacon, an early empiricist, famously dismissed this rationalist approach to knowledge. He compared rationalists to spiders who spin complex metaphysical systems out of their entrails. Empiricists get their hands dirty: like bees gathering pollen, they gather knowledge about the world and only then reflect on it. Around the same time as Bacon, many new discoveries were being made that shook the prevailing views of reality. The Earth was dethroned from its position at the centre of the universe by Copernicus. A new star (a supernova) was observed by Tycho Brahe in 1572 – yet the heavens were supposed to be timeless and unchanging. Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter – again, everything clearly didnt revolve around the Earth. Later in the 17th century, scientist-philosophers such as Newton, Boyle, Gassendi and Huygens would revolutionise our understanding of reality. The original empiricist manifesto was written by John Locke. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, he sought to show how a mind that was blank at birth – a tabula rasa or blank slate – could come to be filled. His first targets were the innate concepts and knowledge (ideas) of the rationalists. There are no such things. There are no truths everyone agrees on. Many people fail to grasp the supposed metaphysical truths. Instead, our senses deliver ideas to us. We store them, abstract from them to form general ideas, and compound and mix them to generate new ideas. Like Lego bricks, we build the meagre sensory data into ever more complex structures. Even Leibniz thought Locke was onto something here. He claimed that our minds were like blocks of marble that had to be carefully chiselled at to reveal the hidden structure (the innate truths). It is hard work and not everyone will end up well-chiselled. Hume took empiricism to its limit. Where Locke talked indifferently of ideas, Hume distinguished impressions and ideas. Impressions are the direct deliverances of the senses and are forceful and vivid in comparison to ideas, which are the copies our minds makes. (He also agreed with the Empiricist Berkeley that Lockes theory of general ideas was wrong. We do not abstract from particular ideas to a general idea but use a particular idea in a general way via a general name. ) What about the precious necessary truths philosophy is supposed to study? Locke argued that once we have ideas in our mind, our mind will perceive the necessary connections between them – e. g. that a triangle has internal angles that add to 180o? But where does the idea of necessity come from? Hume provided an answer. He distinguished statements into two categories: those expressing relations of ideas (analytic) and those expressing matters of fact (synthetic). The analytic truths express mere definitions: we simply are aware of an association between terms. The synthetic truths are the contingent truths. So what happens to interesting necessary truths, such as God exists or nothing exists without being caused to exist? Hume argued that if these werent analytic – and they arent – they arent necessary. We feel that they are necessary and this is all necessity is: a psychological property. When we say that X caused Y, we think we have said something about the universe. We think we have seen an example of a law of nature (e. g. the water in the bucket froze because it was cold exemplifies the law water freezes at 0oC). Science investigates these laws. Hume said that causation was all in the mind. We see one thing after another and when weve seen instances of a regularity enough, we develop the feeling that one thing must be followed by the other. Hume, like Locke, emphasised how all we can be certain of are our impressions – how the world seems. Scientists are really investigating how the world appears: they can never be certain that the world really is the way it appears. So, empiricism seems to lead straight to scepticism about the external world. Kant objected strongly to this. Science really is studying the external world and there really is an external world for it to investigate. Kant brought about a revolution in philosophy (he called it a Copernican revolution). He argued that the empiricists and rationalists were both right and wrong. The Empiricists were right: science requires the study of the world and the world is brought to us via the senses. The Rationalists were right: our mind is not blank but contains structures that enable us to interpret the stream of data from the senses. We may liken the mind to a mould and the data to jelly: one only has something structured by combining both. Or: the mind is a computer with an operating system and the data is the input from the user. A computer with just an operating system is inert. A computer into which data is inputted but which has no operating system is just data: it cannot be interpreted. Only when you combine both do you get something useful. Our minds contain the structures for space, time, objects and causation, for example. (In Kants terminology, space and time are the pure forms of intuition whereas the structures for objects and causation are pure concepts of the understanding. ) This means that we experience a world of spatio-temporally located objects in which causation happens because this is how our minds make it appear. Does this mean that the world as such is all in the mind? Or is the mind somehow tuned to the structure of reality, so that our pre-programmed minds mirror the structures of reality? This is a very difficult question over which there is no agreement amongst experts. The Empiricist movement came back with a vengeance in the 20th century. Philosophers such as Bertrand Russell agreed with Hume that our knowledge begins with our knowledge of sense-data (classical empirical foundationalism). Armed with new discoveries in mathematics and logic, and backed by the successes of science, the logical positivists argued that the only proper way to investigate the world was the scientific way. If I say p and p is synthetic and there is no objective, scientific way to verify my claim that p, then my claim is meaningless. (This is the celebrated verification principle). So, if it is true that there atoms, we should be able to find empirical – sensory – evidence of them. If it is true that nothing happens without being caused to happen, then we likewise need scientific evidence for this. We cannot discover whether it is true by pure reason. The Logical Positivist movement failed. There is much that seems meaningful that is not objectively verifiable by the senses, such as the occurrence of private sensations. The principle makes it impossible for general claims such as all mammals are warm-blooded to be true, as we cannot verify all of them. The very verification principle itself fails its own test! The Logical Positivists responded by watering down their principle: a meaningful claim is one we could gather some evidence for in principle and the principle itself is special – exempt from this rule. But it was not enough. (* Then Quine argued that the fundamental division between analytic and synthetic sentences was incorrect. Analytic sentences cannot be false. But no sentence enjoys this privilege. As we learn more and more, truths we thought were beyond doubt are rejected. Once upon a time, we would have thought it analytic that no object can be in two places at once or that there is no fastest velocity. Quantum physics and general relativity theory show that they are not true. Instead, we should have a web of belief. At the centre are those sentences least likely to be revised – our core beliefs. As we move out, we find those sentences that would be easier and easier to accept as false – that would cause less and less disruption to the rest of what we believe. ) In the 1950s, Chomsky became famous for suggesting that we are not born as blank slates when it comes to language. We are born knowing the fundamental structures of human language. When we are young, we hear our mother tongue and use our knowledge of language to pick up our language very quickly. (At 24 months, the average child understands 500-700 words; at 36 months, 1000; at 48 around 2500-3000; at 60 around 5000 words: thats around 7 words a day between 3 and 6). More recently, studies have shown that children are born with brains structured to expect the world to behave in certain way. Very young children expect objects to persist over time: not to disappear and reappear at two different places, for example. Is this a revival of rationalism? Not according to many people. Rationalists argued that we had innate concepts and knowledge. By reflection, we can discover them and manipulate them to gain new knowledge. But our knowledge of language is altogether different. None of us can easily articulate the rules we follow in generating syntactically-correct English. (And certainly none of us at all can articulate the common structure rules to all human languages. ) Our brains are certainly pre-programmed, but only perhaps in the same way that a computer is pre-wired: clearly something has to be there but nothing as advanced as software. So where are we today? No side is victorious: this would be to grossly over-simplify the debate between the empiricists and the rationalists. We definitely have minds in some way ready to receive the world – hardly surprising, perhaps, given the time it has taken for us to evolve. But when it comes to working out what is true? Few philosophers are rationalists in the old-fashioned way. There is no sharp division between metaphysics and science: our study of reality cannot be done from the armchair alone. But our capacity to grasp abstract mathematical truths has always been difficult to explain from an empiricist perspective. We seem to have an access to a mathematical realm and a cognitive or intuitive access instead of a sensory one. You cant see numbers, after all, and it is not easy to say what we could see that would lead us to generate the ideas of numbers.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Role of the Brand in Developing Customer Loyalty

Role of the Brand in Developing Customer Loyalty INTRODUCTION 1.1 Nature of Assignment  · My project is about â€Å"The Role of Brand in the Development of Customer Loyalty†.  · Its the part of MBA and it is the requirement of my institute, â€Å"THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES†, for the completion of our degree.  · The purpose of project is to determine the role of brand in the development of customer loyalty. After completion of this project I can easily understand that how brand helps in the development of customer loyalty.  · I am doing work on this project to collect data and other relevant information to build a relation between role of brand and customer loyalty and to prove that brand plays an important role in the development of customer loyalty.  · It is my project which is being supervised by a senior person allocated by my institute.  · In order to make my project more reliable field data will also be collected and analyzed.  · Data from the pre-research on this topic will also be studied to make my project well designed and easily understandable.  · From the company point of view my research work will be helpful to understand the relationship between brand and customer loyalty. 1.2 The Rationale for this Study * Literature review has proved that customer loyalty affects by brand. * Different work on this topic has been done which is in chapter# 2. * It is a moralize agreement that brand affects customer loyalty. * I will try to test this claim that the role of brand in the development of customer loyalty with the help of this project using primary and secondary research. * In UK context it would be useful contribution towards this field. * This research will be helpful in understanding the role of brand in the development of customer loyalty. * In local environment findings from this project will be used in number of groups including companies, scholars and also researchers. 1.3 Brand In marketing, a brand is a collection of feelings toward an economic producer. Feelings are created by the accumulation of experiences with the brand, both directly relating to its use, and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary. A brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the information connected to a company, product or service. A brand serves to create associations and expectations among products made by a producer. A brand often includes an explicit logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols, which are developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality. Concepts Some marketers distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations associated with a product or service. The nicest approach to brand building considers the conceptual structure of brands, businesses and people. 1.4 Brand Loyalty Brand loyalty is the ultimate goal a company sets for a branded product. Brand loyalty is a consumers preference to buy a particular brand in a product category. It occurs because consumers perceive that the brand offers the right product features, images, or level of quality at the right price. This perception becomes the foundation for a new buying habit. Basically, consumers initially will make a trial purchase of the brand and, after satisfaction, tend to form habits and continue purchasing the same brand because the product is safe and familiar. Brand loyalists have the following mindset: * â€Å"I am committed to this brand.† * â€Å"I am willing to pay a higher price for this brand over other brands.† * â€Å"I will recommend this brand to others.† Importance of Brand Loyalty There are three main reasons why brand loyalty is important: Higher Sales Volume The average United States Company loses half of its customers every five years, equating to a 13% annual loss of customers. This statistic illustrates the challenges companies face when trying to grow in competitive environments. Achieving even 1% annual growth requires increasing sales to customers, both existing and new, by 14%. Reducing customer loss can dramatically improve business growth and brand loyalty, which leads to consistent and even greater sales since the same brand is purchased repeatedly. Premium Pricing Ability Studies show that as brand loyalty increases, consumers are less sensitive to price changes. Generally, they are willing to pay more for their preferred brand because they perceive some unique value in the brand that other alternatives do not provide. Additionally, brand loyalists buy less frequently on cents-off deals these promotions only subsidize planned purchases. Retain Rather than Seek Brand loyalists are willing to search for their favorite brand and are less sensitive to competitive promotions. The result is lower costs for advertising, marketing and distribution. Specifically, it costs four to six times as much to attract a new customer as it does to retain an old one. 1.5 Customer Loyalty When a consumer finds that a particular brand is delivering the best products and services for him and that brands solves his problems with their products, he begins to identify that brand with a certain quality and develops a loyalty for it. In fact, if you have a customer who is committed to your brand, chances are that he will choose your product or service over the others that are available in the market. Customer loyalty plays a major role in making your business successful. If you are capable of retaining as much as 5% of your old customer base, then your business can grow up to 75%. Another great thing about your old customers who rely on you is that they will tell their friends, family and acquaintances about your products and services. In this manner, your business will get the best kind of advertising possible. Similarly, a customer who does not like your products might do some negative marketing for you, so you need to be on your toes and ensure that all your customers are satisfied with you. This will help you convert your prospective customers to your clients. 1.6 The Role of Brand in the Development of Customer Loyalty In order to keep your old customer base alive and loyal towards your brand. You need to have something unique about your brand. If you are able to have a unique feature that your customers love, then chances are that your customers will stick to your company and even tell others about it. The key is to develop this USP or Unique Selling Point in order to entice the customers and keep them loyal. If your customer is aware of your USP and benefits from it, you will get a brand loyalty that will be enough to keeps your business booming. Customer loyalty is more than simple repurchasing, however. Customers may repurchase a brand due to situational constraints, a lack of viable alternatives, or out of convenience. Such loyalty is referred to as spurious loyalty. True brand loyalty exists when customers have a high relative attitude toward the brand which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior. This type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm. Customers are willing to pay higher prices, they may cost less to serve, and can bring new customers to the firm. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW To determine the role of brand in the development of customer loyalty some articles have been studied. After studying these articles we came to know that how much research has been done by different persons on this topic. Previous research putts light on different kinds of factors related to development of customer loyalty that how customer loyalty can be measured and how properly or effectively brand can be managed and implemented. And what models can be used to make a particular brand more successful. Previous research also explains that what factors are responsible for the decline of a brand. So we came to know about loyalty that a customers loyalty can be determined by studying that how repetitively customer make purchasing of products of a particular brand when some others alternatives are available to customers. Several studies have been conducted in this area following are the list of some key articles and a brief description will be given following. 2.1 Summaries of Articles 1st article is about Brand Loyalty which is being studied by Nancy Giddens, Agricultural Extension Value Added Marketing Specialist. Brand Loyalty has been proclaimed by some to be the ultimate goal of marketing. In marketing, brand loyalty consists of a consumers commitment to repurchase the brand and can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a product or service or other positive behaviors such as word of mouth advocacy. True brand loyalty implies that the consumer is willing, at least on occasion, to put aside their own desires in the interest of the brand. Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing, however. Customers may repurchase a brand due to situational constraints, a lack of viable alternatives, or out of convenience. Such loyalty is referred to as spurious loyalty. True brand loyalty exists when customers have a high relative attitude toward the brand which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior. This type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm: customers are willing to pay higher prices, they may cost less to serve, and can bring new customers to the firm. For example, if Joe has brand loyalty to Company A he will purchase Company As products even if Company Bs are cheaper and/or of a higher quality. This article is about decline of brands by James Surowiecki. The truth is weve always overestimated the power of branding while underestimating consumers ability to recognize quality. When brands first became important in the US a century ago, it was because particular products Pillsbury flour or Morton salt offered far more reliability and quality than no-name goods. Similarly, many (and arguably most) of the important brands in American history Gillette or Disney became successful not because of clever marketing, but because they offered something you couldnt get anywhere else. (Gillette made the best razors; Disney made the best animated movies.) Even Nike first became popular because it made superior running shoes. Marketers looked at these companies and said they were succeeding because their brands were strong. In reality, the brands were strong because the companies were succeeding. Over time, certain brands came to connote quality. They did provide a measure of insurance which in turn made firms less innovative and less rigorous. (Think of the abominable cars General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler made in the late 1960s through the 1970s remember the Pinto? in part because they assumed that they had customers for life.) That sense of protection is eroding in industry after industry, and instead of a consumer economy in which success is determined in large part by name, its now being determined by performance. The aristocracy of brand is dead. Long live the meritocracy of product. This article is about customer engagement by Richard Sedley. Customer Engagement refers to the engagement of customers with one another, with a company or a brand. The initiative for engagement can be both consumer- or company-led and the medium of engagement can be on or offline. A customers degree of engagement with a company lies in a continuum that represents the strength of his investment in that company. Positive experiences with the company strengthen that investment and move the customer down the line of engagement. This article is about Brand Engagement by Watson Wyatt. Brand Engagement is a term loosely used to describe the process of forming an attachment (emotional and rational) between a person and a brand. It comprises one aspect of brand management. What makes the topic complex is that brand engagement is partly created by institutions and organizations, but is equally created by the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of those with whom these institutions and organizations are communicating or engaging with. As a relatively new addition to the marketing and communication mix, brand engagement sits in the space between marketing, advertising, media communication, social media, organizational development, internal communications and human resource management This article is on Brand management by Neil H. McElroy. Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product, product line, or brand. It seeks to increase the products perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity. Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product. This may increase sales by making a comparison with competing products more favorable. It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. The value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology will be discussed in the following section. 3.1 Theoretical Framework The dependent variable, customer loyalty of branded casual wear companies depend upon two independent variables which are price and awareness. Most of the people in Pakistan belong to middle class and they prefer to buy products of low price with good quality. So poor quality of these companies has affected its sale as well as customer loyalty. We know that awareness of any product plays an important role to increase or decrease the customer loyalty. The quality and comfort of branded products are close to local brands. Similarly the awareness of the branded casual wearing is low because of less impressive advertisement. So, it is clear that the sale and customer loyalty is low because of high price and unawareness. 3.2 Research Objectives Following are the objectives of this study: 1. To determine the importance of branding in creating customer loyalty. 2. To identify the characteristics of a brand that help in brand loyalty. 3. To investigate the reasons for brand preference. 4. How brand loyalty can be developed? 5. What makes the customer loyal? 6. To make recommendations for developing customer loyalty through branding. 3.3 Operationalization Customer Loyalty In this, we will measure the customer loyalty whether the people are buying it or not and why. We have price and awareness as an independent variable and we will measure customer loyalty for different types of the branded casual wearing. Awareness Awareness is an independent variable and we will measure it by the following indicators: i) By asking the people whether they are aware or not. ii) If yes, then from which media vehicle they became aware of it e.g. Newspapers, Magazines, T.V, Radio, Bill boards, word of mouth etc. Methodology Used To perform this task, research was conducted in such a way that reflected the awareness towards branded casual wearing. The primary source of data collection was used and the instrument for data collection was personally administered Questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered personally due to sampling information, administrative control, and helping the respondents in answering technical questions. The population of the research consists of ultimate consumers. Therefore Convenience Sampling technique was used. 3.4 Research Design The purpose of this research was to establish the relationship between independent variables high price awareness and the dependent variable customer loyalty. This is a field study because it examined the relationship between the variables. For this purpose questionnaire was developed to get response of the people. Neither the variables were controlled nor was artificial setting created for the study. The unit of analysis for this study is an individual and tool of data collection is questionnaire. For data collection we have used convenience sampling technique. Procedure Used Standardized questionnaire was designed for consumers. The questionnaire was developed in order to make it comprehensive, so as to enable the researcher to collect all needed information from consumers. The questionnaires was distributed and filled in by the consumers. Methods of Data Collection Population consisting of people who are using the branded casual wears were considered for the collection of data. Survey questionnaire was thus used to collect data from respondents in different areas and University of the Central Punjab. Tool for Data Collection Tool to collect data was survey questionnaire which was very carefully designed. It consisted of all the types of questions i.e. dichotomous questions and multiple choices. So as to acquire in depth knowledge from the consumers about the research problem. After preparation of questionnaire, it was shown to kind teacher for changes in it. Pre-testing After developing and getting it approved, 5 copies of the questionnaire were filled out by the senior students of the University. The respondents faced only few problems which were then replaced and made it easier and comprehensive. After pre-testing 50 copies were again distributed among the public and students. Sampling Techniques We have selected the samples which gave maximum representatives of target market. These samples gave more reliable and accurate information because they are end users of branded casual wears and can provide better information about research problem. Nature of the Study The research study was applied research because it was performed to find solution of problem. Why customer loyalty of branded casual wears is lower. After finding solution of problem, companies implement it to rectify problem situation. Purpose of Study The research has two main purpose first purpose is aimed at to be completed as a requirement of course. Second purpose was to study the impact of important factors that affect customer loyalty of branded casual wears. Some of important factors to be studied were: * Demographic factors like age, income occupation * Quality * Price * Brand name * Availability * Advertisement All these factors were studied to find out all possible ways to maintain and to improve factors such as availability, quality, price, advertisement etc. Study Setting This is a field study because it examined attitude and behavior of the people towards low demand for branded casual wears. For this purpose we had surveyed different areas and got filled in the questionnaires from students. Variables were neither controlled nor manipulated and no artificial setting was created for the study. Time Horizon The data for this research was collected over one month period. Field Work We had 50 sample sizes. We went to the commercial and business areas to fill this questionnaire. The areas consisted of Green heith markets and white city commercial markets. During our field work, we faced a few problems like negative responses from the respondents. Some of the persons hesitated refused to fill questionnaire. But we faced all problems boldly as a good researcher. 3.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY Our research has following limitations: 1) Lack of time 2) Cost for collecting data. 3) Sample size is small. 4. ANALYSIS OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE, INTERPRETATION OF DATA AND TABULATION REPRESENTATION TABLE NO.1 Do you prefer branded clothes? Response Frequency %age Yes 41 82% No 9 18%_ Total 50 100__ According to our analysis 82% respondents preferred branded clothes while 18% respondents out of our selected samples did not prefer branded clothes. So our analysis shows that majority of the people prefer branded clothes. TABLE NO.2 Brand is important for which item of clothing? Items Frequency %age Shirt 10 20% Jeans 22 44% Casual wears 18 36% Total 50 100% 20% of respondents preferred branded shirts, 44% of respondents preferred branded jeans while 36% of respondents preferred branded casual wears. So according to our analysis its clear that majority of people prefer branded jeans. TABLE NO.03 Why do you prefer branded clothes? Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total High Quality 24 (48%) 18 (36%) 6 (12%) 2(4%) 50 Comfort 26 (52%) 15 (30%) 8 (16%) 1 (2%) 50 Durability 25 (50%) 18 (36%) 5 (10%) 2 (4%) 50 This graph shows that 48% respondents are strongly agreed, 36% respondents are agreed, 12% respondents are disagreed and 4% respondents are strongly disagreed that they prefer branded clothes due to high quality. 52% respondents are strongly agreed, 30% respondents are agreed, 16% respondents are disagreed and 2% respondents are strongly disagreed that they prefer branded clothes due to comfort. 50% respondents are strongly agreed, 36% respondents are agreed, 10% respondents are disagreed and 4% respondents are strongly disagreed that they prefer branded clothes due to durability. So majority of people prefer branded clothes due to comfort. TABLE NO.04 Which of the following element is important for your choice of the branded item? Elements Frequency %age Product features 31 62% Price 14 28% Promotion 04 08% Placement 01 02% Total 50 100_ This graph shows that 62% respondents preferred product features, 28% respondents preferred price, 8%respondents preferred promotion and 2% preferred placement for the choice of branded items. So our analysis shows that product feature is the most important element for the choice of branded items. TABLE NO.05 Approximately, how many times do you buy your clothes? Buying Period Frequency %age Once a week 02 04% Once every 2 weeks 00 00% Once a month 08 16% At the beginning of season 10 20% During the sales period 00 00% During the Christmas Festivities 00 00% As the need arise 15 30% Occasionally 13 26% Rarely 02 04% Others 0 00% Total 50 100% This graph shows that 30% respondents are used to buy clothes as the need arises. So majority of people go to buy clothes as the need arises. TABLE NO.06 From where do you usually buy clothes? By the use of Frequency %age Catalogues 05 10% Magazines 07 14% Internet 03 06% Open Market 35 70%__ Total 50 100%_ Above graph shows that 70% of respondents prefer to buy from open market. 6% respondents through internet, 14% respondents use magazine and 10% respondents use catalogues to buy clothes. So majority of people go to buy clothes from open market. TABLE NO.07 How influential is advertising in your purchase of branded wears? Advertising Frequency %age Very Influential 09 18% Influential 22 44% Slightly Influential 10 20% Not Influential 07 14% Dont Know 02 04%_ Total 50 100__ Above graph shows that 18% of respondents are much influenced, 44% are influenced, 20% are slightly influenced, 14% are not influenced by advertising to purchase branded clothes while 4% of respondents do not know about it. So our analysis shows that majority of people are influenced by advertising to purchase branded clothes. TABLE NO.08 If a company wants to advertise to you, which of the following medium would be most effective in gaining consumers? Medium Frequency %age TV 24 48% Radio 00 00% Magazines 10 20% Newspaper 01 02% Billboards 11 22% Internet 03 06% Others 01 02% Total 50 100% 48% respondents told that T.V is the most effective advertising media. So our analysis shows that majority of people are influenced by advertising through T.V. TABLE NO.09 How influential is a celebrity endorsement in your decision to purchase branded clothes? Celebrity Frequency %age Very Influential 05 10 Influential 15 30 Slightly Influential 13 26 Not Influential 12 24 Dont Know 05 10 Total 50 100 30% respondents told that they are influenced by a celebrity to make their decisions to purchase branded clothes. So our analysis shows that branded clothes should be advertised through a celebrity. TABLE NO.10 How influential are other consumers opinions of a brand in your perception of that brand? Other Consumers Opinion Frequency %age Very Influential 14 28 Influential 19 38 Slightly Influential 12 24 Not Influential 02 4 Dont Know 03 6 Total 50 100 This graph shows that 38% respondents are influenced by other peoples opinion. So company should achieve more and more market reputation. Table No.11 When buying clothes, you: Buying clothes Frequency %age Go directly in a particular shop 31 62 Go round in various shops 19 38 Total 50 100.00 62% respondents go directly to purchase branded clothes in a particular shop while 38% respondents go round in various shops. So a company should have more physical outlets to capture market. Table No.12 How would you rate the following statements? Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree I wear only well known brands 6 30 9 5 I buy clothes depending on their colors 8 31 6 5 I buy styles that suit me rather than what is fashionable 15 31 3 1 I only buy the style that my friends wear 3 15 23 9 I only buy the latest fashion as long as they suit me 16 20 12 2 I create my own fashion rather than follow it 4 27 14 5 I tend to stick to classic styles that wont date 1 26 19 4 I wear only clothes that are widely available 1 21 23 5 I hate going round for clothes and I let others buy my clothes 2 25 14 9 I search for sales and low prices 18 12 10 10 30 respondents out of 50 are agreed that they wear only well known branded clothes, 31 respondents are agreed that they buy clothes depending on their colors, 31 respondents are agreed that they buy styles that suit them rather than what is fashionable. 23 respondents are disagreed that they only buy the style that their friends wear. 20 respondents are agreed that they only buy the latest fashion as long as they suit them. 27 respondents are agreed that they create their own fashion rather than follow it. 26 respondents are agreed that they tend to stick to classic styles that wont date. 23 respondents are disagreed that they wear only clothes that are widely available. 25 respondents are agreed that they hate going round for clothes and they let others buy their clothes. 18 respondents are strongly agreed that they search for sales and low prices. Table No.13 How important would you rate the following factors in influencing the choice of clothes purchased? Almost Always Sometimes Rarely Never Fashion Magazines 8 20 11 11 Beauty Magazines 6 10 14 20 Television 18 13 15 4 Radio 9 13 14 14 Newspapers 10 25 7 8 Billboards 9 33 8 0 Cinema 8 15 8 19 Promotional Leaflets 3 20 10 17 Internet 17 12 15 6 Others 0 0 0 0 Majority of people are influenced by fashion magazines, T.V, news paper, billboards, promotional leaflets and internet while they are not influenced by beauty magazines, radio and cinema to make the choice of branded clothes. So a company should focus to advertise through T.V and billboards. TABLE NO.14 Do you think that wearing branded clothes would reflect? Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Confidence 32 17 1 0 Superior Image 14 29 5 2 Exclusivity 13 32 5 0 Snob Appeal 11 28 9 2 32 respondents are strongly agreed that wearing branded clothes show level of confidence, 29 respondents are agreed that wearing branded clothes reflect superior image. 32 respondents are agreed that branded clothes reflect exclusivity and 28 respondents told that its a snob appeal. So our analysis shows that majority of people purchase branded clothes due to high level of confidence, superior image, exclusivity and snob appeal. TABLE NO.15 Criteria used for the selection of specific brand? Selection Criteria Frequency %age Well known brand name 24 48% Brand shows the quality 18 36% Brand offers incentives 08 16% Total 50 100% The graph and its analysis show that criteria used for selection of specific brand is well known brand name. TABLE NO.16 Which brand is preferred by customer? Preferred Brand Frequency %age Offer more services 10 20% High price with high quality 26 52% Low price with high quality 14 28%_ Total 50 100% 52% respondents told that only that brand is preferred which provides high quality with high price. So a company should mainly focus on high quality. TABLE NO.17 What attracts you more to select a specific brand? Attraction Frequency %age More advertisement 06 12 Market reputation 11 22 Existing customers satisfaction 33 66 Total 50 100 66% respondents told that existing customers satisfaction attracts more to select a specific brand. So majority of people are influenced by existing customers opinion. TABLE NO.18 Why most people prefer local brand? Attraction Frequency %age Less price 26 52 Easy availability 6 12 Same features like imported brand 18 36 Total 50 100 This graph shows that most of the people prefer branded clothes due to less price. TABLE NO.19 Local brand captures market due to Attraction Frequency %age

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Personal Narrative- Christmas Cookies Essay -- Personal Narrative

Personal Narrative- Christmas Cookies Although I have grown up to be entirely inept at the art of cooking, as to make even the most wretched chef ridicule my sad baking attempts, my childhood would have indicated otherwise; I was always on the countertop next to my mother’s cooking bowl, adding and mixing ingredients that would doubtlessly create a delicious food. When I was younger, cooking came intrinsically with the holiday season, which made that time of year the prime occasion for me to unite with ounces and ounces of satin dark chocolate, various other messy and gooey ingredients, numerous cooking utensils, and the assistance of my mother to cook what would soon be an edible masterpiece. The most memorable of the holiday works of art were our Chocolate Crinkle Cookies, which my mother and I first made when I was about six and are now made annually. I remember the deceitful character of the recipe the most from the first time I made Chocolate Crinkles. Being young, I didn’t understand the nature of unsweetened chocolate; it looked and smelled just like any other chocolate...

Leonardo Fibonacci Essay -- Mathematics Papers

Leonardo Fibonacci Leonardo Fibonacci was one of the great mathematicians of his time. His lifestyle allowed him to travel and study math in various countries, and he ended up combining his cultural knowledge to discover the most effective ways of doing mathematics. He is most famous for his contributions to the European number system and for his sequence of numbers known as the Fibonacci numbers. Starting with 0 and 1 as the first two numbers, each number in the sequence is the sum of the two preceding numbers. He came across these numbers as a solution to a problem that he used as an example in one of his many publications. He was not aware of the importance of his findings at the time. Many uses have been found for these numbers since Leonardo’s death and many mathematicians have used this sequence in their own theories. Leonardo Fibonacci was born in Pisa, Italy in the middle 1170’s. When he was almost twenty, he moved to Bugia, Algeria with his father, Guielmo Bonacci. Bonacci was the secretary of the Republic of Pisa responsible for directing the Pisan trading colony in Bugia. When he brought his son to Algeria, he had Leonardo educated to become a merchant. During his studies in northern Africa, Fibonacci discovered the Hindu-Arabic number system, which he had not been exposed to in Europe. When his father arranged for him to work for the Pisan republic, Leonardo took advantage of his business trips to countries such as Greece, Sicily, Egypt and Provence. He studied the methods of mathematics that were practiced in these various nations. He discovered that the Hindu-Arabic numerals were much more effective and easier to manipulate than the Roman numeral system used in Italy. [i] .. ...997. Newman, James R., The World of Mathematics. Vol. 1, New York: Simon and Schuster, c1956. Peer Reviewed by Melissa Lenzi and Mike Hartman. [i] [ii] Ibid. [iii] [iv] Sanford, p.25 [v] [vi] Ibid [vii] [viii] [ix] Ibid. [x] Ibid. [xi] Gullberg, p. 287 [xii] [xiii] Gullberg, p. 288 [xiv] Boyer, p. 287 [xv] [xvi] Newman, p.718

Friday, July 19, 2019

Hills Like White Elephants :: Hills Like White Elephants Essays

Herodotus and ‘Rhampsinitus and the Thief’ BY: Layla Brown Herodotus, the first Greek historian, has been called by some "the father of history" and by others "the father of lies." Born in 485 B.C to a wealthy family at Halicarnassus, in Asia Minor, he was exiled to Samos soon after his birth because of his family’s opposition to the Persian domination of Ionia. During his youth, he traveled widely, studying the manners, customs, and religions of the people he encountered. His histories are made up of tales told to him by people from Egypt, Syria, Babylon, Colchis, Paeonian and Macedonia. He was criticized by several ancient writers for creating stories and passing them off as the truth. Herodotus is most famous for the nine books he wrote on the rise of the Persian Empire, the Persian invasion of Greece in 490 BC and 480 BC, and the final Greek victory. Although it received quite a lot of praise and is still considered a masterpiece, itâ€℠¢s trustworthiness has been questioned both in ancient and modern times. The story that I’m covering is of Rhampsinitus and the Thief (pg. 277). This is a tale that Herodotus learned in Egypt and many believe that this anecdote was told to him by Egyptian priests, claiming it a true story. Herodotus, himself, didn’t actually believe this particular story but he felt it was his duty to report what he was told. Now, for those of you who didn’t read it, I’ll quickly give a brief synopsis of the story. A dying father tells his two sons how to break into the king’s vault, which he, himself, built. The father then dies, leaving the family with no way to support themselves. So the two sons begin their thieving. They manage to escape with the treasure three times before the king sets up a trap, in which one of the brothers gets caught. At his captured brother’s urging, the other brother cuts his sibling’s head off, taking it with his, so the family’s identity would not be known. The next day, the king was bewildered at the sight of a headless thief. He then ordered his sentries to hang the body on the outer wall and arrest anybody seen mourning the headless corpse. The two thieves’ mother, so absolutely distraught over the death of her son, threatens her surviving son, saying that if he didn’t collect the his brother’s body, she would turn him in herself.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Adopting Africans not the answer

In Adopting Africans not the answer, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, argues against an appeal that Madonna has made on television: adopt an African child.Her opinion is summarized as, â€Å"Madonna could have urged others to help solve the problems by empowering, not failed leaders, but the people.†Adichie’s opinion can be categorized under both persuasion and deliberation. First, she expounds on what Madonna says on TV and then tries to persuade others to believe that Madonna, could have said something better.Therefore, her goal is to clarify what Madonna has said, and make a resolution as to what Madonna could have said. In the process of doing this, she also simultaneously presents to her readers the situation for children in Africa and how the public can help.As she narrates her African background and urges people to look more closely at Africa, and essentially, look far beyond what Madonna has said, she also deliberates on the better type of action between adopting a chi ld in Africa, or sending a donation to check to malaria-eradication organizations. Adichie wants her readers to believe that the better thing to do is send donation.My outlook on Adichie’s opinion is perhaps similar to her own opinion of Madonna – I wish Adichie could have focused on the fact that Africa needs donation, instead of going around in circles, telling a lot of things that could not strongly prove a point.Adichie’s article was full of herself. She starts with her childhood, goes on to tell what she feels, and ends the article with what she would think, which is only a poor anticipation of a scenario that do not give enough kick to support her arguments.Adichie could have been more straightforward, and started with what Madonna said on television. From there, she could have skipped some parts of her story and went straight to correct â€Å"the underlying notion that one helps Africa by adopting Africa's children.† Instead, she dragged on and too k Madonna’s adopted child’s biological father on the scene without empowering her opinion.Yet, when Adichie needed to expound, she failed. She wrote, â€Å"I wish she (Madonna) had added that Africa cannot depend on aid alone, that aid is like salted peanuts: The more failed leaders get, the more they want. I wish she had said she was setting up an organization run by locals to use donations as micro-credit.†Adichie could have directly compared the effects of helping a micro-credit and adopting a child in a bid to help Africa as a nation. But Adichie just carelessly went on without painting a clearer and crispier picture in the minds of her readers.Towards the end of her argument, she peppers her words with a lot of â€Å"I wonder,† which made her arguments a lot weaker and immature than what it should be. She may gotten the message across that Madonna could have said something better; but she did give a lot of depth to her explanation for that. So after a while, her reader forgets about what Madonna has said, and what she herself has said.It’s a shame because Adichie almost made a point – that Africa can be helped not just be adopting its children. But she merely touches on the â€Å"why† part of her article — where she was meant to strengthen her point and create an imprint in people’s minds — and clearly loses control of her argument. Overall, her article is doomed to be forgettable.SOURCE:CHIMAMANDA, N.A. (2006). Adopting Africans not the answer. News Day.  Retrieved November 15, 2006, from,0,116074.story?coll=ny-vi

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Archetypes in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Essay

In the newfangled The Adventures of huckabackleberry Finn, Mark twosome utilizes the samples of the Un bequeathing Hero, the imprint Shifter, and harbour vs. natural state to show that huckaback Finn and Jim rear set aside find indep annihilateence whole along the banks of the Mississippi River. huckaback portrays the averse belligerent beca go for he tack togethers a net of get a lineceit into something before he does it, thus far though it will benefit e truly(prenominal)body. He is also very indecisive to cause noble- top doged symbolizes. The fag and Duke show the pilot light of the figure out shifter because they ar continuously lying ab knocked out(p) their identi inter-group communications and deceiving everybody.The Mississippi represents the characters seaport, and huck and Jims family line represents the wild. huckleberry Finn portrays the archetype of the unwilling hero. huckaback is very reluctant to do the right thing, and endlessly timb res punish up to(p) about everything he does. The ch bothenges huck had to over come downward almost caused huck and Jim to exhaust their fate at finding liberty, precisely he al centerings built up his fearlessness and was pushed to fight for what he image was right. After gobbler and huckaback spooked Jim, Tom indispensablenessed to urinate it further and tie Jim to a tree for fun (page 5). huckaback had mat up guilty for scaring Jim and didnt indispensableness to do anymore harm, so huckaback tell apart no he power wake and make a worried (page 5). This relates to him creationness an unwilling hero because you can expect that huckaback entangle negative for doing the wrong thing and his conscience pushed him to do the right thing the second while nigh. Another duration when huck did something to prolong Jim and himself further discomfit the river was when he give tongue to I wont let no runa flair niggers get by me if I can help it. (page 91). huc kaback hence went on trying to deport himself that what he did was right.They went bump off and I got on board the raft, feeling poorly and low because I knowed very well I had by dint of wrong, and I see if warnt no use for me to try to hit the books to do rightthen I thought a minute, and says to myself, hold on spose youd a do right and giver Jim up, would you felt better than what you do now? No says I, Id feel no-account-Id feel yet now the same way I do now. Well, then, says I, whats the use you aint no get to to do wrong. (page 91). Huck felt guilty for lying about having Jim aboard with him, he knew that what he was doing was illegal and had trouble comprehend the mature in what he did.As the reader, you know that Jim is rattling a good man and doesnt deserve to be treated as a slave. scarcely for Huck, it was a really hard scrape for him to convince himself that lying about Jim and doing the unchaste thing was really acting as the hero. even out Huck d idnt think of of himself as a hero later on he did this, he felt insalubrious about what he did, solely the point that it took a throne to persuade him to feel comfortable about his decision shows that he is suitable for the unwilling hero. In the bring up I says to myself, this is another(prenominal) one that Im letting his rob her of her specie.And when she got through they all jest laid theirselves out to make me feel at main office and know I was amongst friends. I felt so ornery and low mountain and mean that I says to myself, my minds make up Ill hive away that money for them or bust. (page 175), Huck had just allowed con artist to distract money from many different batch and had felt guilty about it because he knew of them being turn shifters all along. When the con artists made their attempt to steal these three loose girls inheritance, Huck felt so bad that he dissolved to scheme against them and steal their money back. It took a parcel out of courage for H uck to do this.The reader and Huck shargon the knowledge of knowing the nance and Dukes real personal identity as con artists. But with Huck being within the situation, opposed to the reader being able to see the clear decision, Huck did not loss people to know that he had done this deed. This shows that he was still hesitant on wanting to do this heroic act. This is showed when Huck says I got to do it in a way that they wont suspicion that I done it (page 175). at a time again it takes a visual sense of Huck convincing himself to do this heroic act and is still unsure about it after he does this. This clearly shows Huck in the archetype of the unwilling hero.Having Huck flavor out of his comfort zone lead himself and Jim to freedom, but Huck would not boast been able to show as oft courage if it werent for the archetype of the shapeshifter portrayed by the superpower and Duke. The Duke and world power atomic number 18 always lying about their identity and changing th eir explanation, they deceive many people including Jim, threatening Huck and Jims chance at freedom. The Duke and King began their role as shape shifters when they were first introduced in the novel. Huck and Jim were fooled by them for a bit, but it didnt take long for Huck to conception out that these were con artists.Having two shape shifters aboard with them also got Huck to search his role as the unwilling hero more. You can see this by the way he doesnt want to say he knows who they really are. It didnt take me long to make up my mind that these liars warnt no Kings nor Dukes at all, but just low down humbugs and frauds. But I never said nothing, never let on unbroken it to myself its the best way then you dont have no quarrels, and dont get into no trouble. (page 125). The King and Duke scammed a whole townspeople out of $87. 75 by do up a make hi report just to make some vigorous money.He told them he was a pirate-been a pirate for thirty yearshed been robbed last night and put ashore off of a steamboat without a centand put in the take a breather of his life trying to turn the pirates into the neat path (page 131) Because the town people thought that their story was so shopping mall speck they decided to give them a lot of money even though they didnt need it at all. This shows how ruthless these characters actually are even thought they come across as kind people. The King and Dukes final theoretical account of being shape shifters was when they interchange Jim back as a slave.By doing this Huck and Jim ultimately look how cruel and rotten these people are. They all betrayed the people who had helped these con artists escape down the river buy grappleing Jim back into thrall for a very small price. This shows their lawful character and makes Huck so angry, that he finally decides to timbre up and call on Jims hero. It was very common for the Duke and King to do this, but it took a lot of courage for Huck to finally decide to r escue Jim. This was Hucks major act that can be seen as the unwilling hero and the final step into securing Jims freedom.All of that can be seen when Huck says After all we had done for those scoundrels, here it was all come to nothing, everything was all busted up and ruined, because they could have the fancyt to sever Jim suck a clowning as that, and make him a slave again all his life, and amongst strangers, too, for forty pestering dollars (page 211). Even though the King and Duke where very deceiving shape shifters, they help Huck visualize that the Mississippi River was where he could find his freedom and that the river was his haven. Haven vs. wild is another archetype that is prominent in the novel.Huck and Jim spend almost all of the story out on the Mississippi River, but just because it is in the Wilderness doesnt mean that that is their Wilderness. The story starts off with Huck explaining that he has a bad home life. His father is always drunkard and doesnt take c are of him, so he lives with the widow. The widow is in full-of-the-moon control of Huck and he hates it. He is the kind of person who loves to have freedom and is always striving for it. That is the same for Jim, he is a slave that almost gets sold for money, but all he wants is freedom. two Huck and Jims home lives are not what either of them are looking at for.This shows that this part of their lives is actually the Wilderness because to them they are unhappy and not comfortable. This is showed when Huck says middling soon I wanted to smoke, and asked the widow to let me, but she wouldnt. (page 2). Huck and Jim end up running away and expenditure their lives out on the Mississippi River, hoping that at long last they will cross the border and Huck will have the freedom he wanted and Jim will no lengthy be a slave. Throughout the story the reader starts to realized that the Mississippi River represents freedom and Huck and Jim have actually ensnare their haven out on the river with severally other.Both of them achieve the freedom they want and have a good time exploring and meeting new people (and have tobacco). This life is exciting and thrilling for them and is actually what they aspired from the beginning. This is why the Mississippi River is their Haven. You know when Huck gets away when you read I fooled knocker and got away (page 30). You can also see how Jim was treated when he says I hear old missus tell de wider she gwyne to sell me down to Orleans, but she didnt want to, but she could git eight hundd dollars for me, en it uz sich a big plentifulness o money she couldn resis. (page 43). By the end of the book Huck is saying that he is going to have to stay with his aunt because his father died and his Aunt couldnt just let him go. When Huck says Aunt cranny shes going to adopt me and prepare me, and I cant pedestal it. I been there before. (page 293). Huck is upset about being adopted because you can see that he loved being on the r aft with all of the upthrow and freedom. Huck is put back into the Wilderness and finally realizes that what he wants (what his haven is), is to be out exploring the world with his buddies Tom and Jim.Even though this is opposite from what you would expect a haven and a wilderness to be it is what made Huck happy and kept the novel interesting. These places are where Huck finally realized that for the first time in his life he had the freedom that he had always wanted. Through all the example you can see how Mark Twain used the archetypes of the Unwilling Hero, the Shape Shifter, and Haven vs. Wilderness to demonstrate a difference of opinion to freedom in the book The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Huck Finn is the Unwilling hero because it takes a lot of persuading for him to do the right thing, but in the end he always does.The King and Duke display the Shape Shifter archetype because of how deceiving and two faced they are around everybody. Finally the Mississippi River repre sents the characters Haven and Huck and Jims home represent Wilderness because of how unhappy they are at home opposed to the river where they are both happy. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a very inspirational story of Huck performing selfless heroic acts and will leave you feeling good and hopeful for the characters in their future.