Thursday, October 31, 2019

Hugo Grotius, from on the Law of War and peace Essay

Hugo Grotius, from on the Law of War and peace - Essay Example Despite the attempt by several government to develop peaceful societies, conflicts exist even at personal levels thereby presenting several ethical dilemmas. War is an evil necessity that as Grotius explains presents realistic solutions to most of the conflicts while at the same time has severe ramifications (Bonevac, 2005). Choosing to engage in war thus presents myriad effects to the people. While war is a social vice that causes extensive loss of lives and destabilization of the society, Grotius explains particular circumstances that justify war. In considering the possibilities to engage in wars, it becomes realistic to weigh the ramifications of war thereby making an informed decision. Firstly, war results in the loss of human life. Nothing justifies the death of another. Engaging in war presents a substantial threat to the lives of the civilians most of who are often unarmed. Additionally, war results in the displacement of many other civilians. The displacement results from large-scale destruction of homes since such readily become battlefields. People therefore flee from their homes in order to seek safe refuge elsewhere. Another equally important effect of war is that it curtails socio economic developments. The heightened insecurity during wars curtails investments besides resulting in massive displacement of people. The two are empirical manifestations that cur b both economic growth and social cohesion. While the above are major concerns that require effective consideration and often serve to prevent people from engaging in wars, wars are at times the only plausible solutions to the social problems in a society. Different countries including the United States have engaged in different wars most of which, the government justified. As Hugo Grotius explains, a war offers realistic solutions to some of the major social problems and is therefore unavoidable in such circumstances. Grotius provides three circumstances which he claims justifies

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Define and then compare and contrast the major goals of the Civil Essay

Define and then compare and contrast the major goals of the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement. Discuss their differences, similarities, and contributions to the Black freedom struggle - Essay Example The main difference between the two occurs where Civil Rights Movement focuses on the civil rights of black citizens while on the other hand Black Power Movement is about helping blacks achieve full equality with those of whites. There similarities between the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Movement include equality for everyone and elimination of discrimination. The equality to people involved equal employment opportunity, education, the right to vote, and no discrimination while elimination of discrimination involved blacks and whites coming together to create a discrimination free environment. It is easy to find people confusing Civil Rights Movement with Black Power Movement because the Black Power Movement came from the Civil Rights Movement. The Black Power Movement is seen as turning point in the relationship between blacks and whites especially around 1950s and 1960s.1It helped the blacks achieve equality as those of whites with a group like the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People that involved both blacks and whites in trying to get rid of discrimination. However, it was seen as a violent faction with the aim to divide the two races. Civil Rights Movement ensured the rights of citizenship by utilizing fourteenth and fifteenth Amendments that had been destroyed by Jim Crow Laws in the Southern part of America. This has seen the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by blacks and whites in 1909 with the aim of eradicating discrimination. To conclude, we have seen that the Black Power Movement seems to have grown from the Civil Rights Movement with the aim of helping blacks achieve full equality with those of whites while the Civil Rights Movement has been seen to focus on civil rights of black citizens. Black Power and Civil Rights Movement have

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Global Warming as a Political Conspiracy

Global Warming as a Political Conspiracy Global warming and climate change have been a topic long debated, especially in the political realm. Several conspiracy theories have developed over time that surround the topic, mainly formulated by those that deny the existence of global warming and climate change. These conspiracy theories have gained a following and have evolved over time through several modes of dissemination, and continue to be debunked using the facts shared by climate researchers. The theory of human induced global warming was proposed by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in the late nineteenth century (Graham, 2000). He stated that he believed that emissions from industrial processes might cause alterations in the Earths climate. Since this proposal, scientists have argued over the issue. Later, Dr. S. Fred Singer, an atmospheric and space physicist, spoke out against the theory of human induced global warming and climate change (Interview Dr. S. Fred Singer n.d.). He stated that the process was completely natural and that humans would be able to find a way to adapt to the changes. He sparked a new wave of climate change denial in the mass media. Several theories have been formed suggesting that global warming and climate change are not a real threat. These include that scientists are hiding or altering climate date to push their agendas, climate scientists are using alarmism for their own economic gain, that global warming is a hoax invented by the Chinese to help them outcompete United States manufacturing, that climate change is an elaborate scam against tax payers, and that the theory of climate change itself is an invention of activists, university researchers, and profiteers for their own economic gain. Typically, these theories center around politics and the political and/or economic agendas of scientists and climate change believers. All of these theories have been shared by their adherents through various outlets, including books, newspaper articles, and other internet sources including social media and partisan news websites. Most adherents of the global warming conspiracy are conservatives or lean more toward right wing political association. However, the opinions of these adherents are not shared by a majority of scientists. In fact, multiple studies have shown that approximately ninety-seven percent of climate scientists agree that the current trends in global temperature are due to human activities (Scientific consensus: Ea rths climate is warming, 2016). In November 2009, it was discovered that over a thousand emails and documents were stolen and/or leaked from the University of East Anglias Climatic Research Unit, or CRU (Carrington, 2011). The correspondence was published online, and this caused the public to question science and scientists. This scandal was termed Climategate. This scandal gave climate change deniers the opportunity to give evidence to their claims surrounding the phenomenon. Climategate involved CRU staff that were in correspondence with other leading climate scientists around the world. Phil Jones, the head of the CRU, was one of the staff members principally under investigation for his correspondence. The CRU typically specializes in utilizing past thermometer data and other data sets to aid in reconstructing more accurate and precise records of Earths temperature from the past. This scandal was particularly upsetting to the public because it posed questions surrounding access to scientific data and the scienti fic research review process. Scientific research requires that data be checked by various researchers to see if the results are similar. This requires access to any and all raw data, but in the case of the CRUs temperature data, not all of it was publicly available. Since their data sets had been put together over a long period of time by utilizing several different resources, the scientists working at the CRU were hesitant to share their temperature data with people that they thought were not going to use the information responsibly. During the peer review process of several other papers, it appeared as though the email correspondence between these scientists also served as a way for them to figure out how to stop other papers from being published. Those papers appeared to critical of the CRUs research. There were four separate investigations that looked into the issues surrounding Climategate. The House of Commons science and technology select committee was the first to report the ir investigations. They questioned Phil Jones and other CRU workers in person and ultimately concluded that the CRUs reputation was intact but that they had data access issues that needed to be resolved, which fell on the University (Carrington, 2011). Another report concluded that making the data that was used by the CRU public was the responsibility of the scientists that collected it, not necessarily the responsibility of the scientists that were reconstructing it. The biggest investigation was done by the university, which found that the scientists had not altered results or silenced anyone who disagreed with them, but that scientists needed to be more open about their research. The final investigation was conducted by Norfolk police where they tried to determine how the emails became public in the first place. As far as the content in the emails is concerned, there was nothing that was found that would indicate that scientists were hiding things or attempting to keep other scie ntists from being published. While some incriminating phrases were used in the emails, such as trick and hiding the decline, the emails give no indication that climate scientists were trying to keep information from the public (Debunking Misinformation About Stolen Climate Emails, n.d.). The term trick in these emails, according to the Union of Concerned Scientists, refers to a technique that was being used by the climate researchers while pooling data together (Debunking Misinformation About Stolen Climate Emails, n.d.). They decided that comparing temperature data that was collected from thermometers to that collected from tree rings would give other scientists and researchers the opportunity to better understand climate prior to the widespread use of thermometers to record global temperature data. Combining these data sets would allow older data to be interpreted more accurately. Hiding the decline refers to the omission of data that was collected from some trees in Siberia after 1960 because there were some trees that acted as outliers (Debunking Misinformation About Stolen Climate Emails, n.d.). Some trees had thinner rings than the researchers expected as compared to the actual thermometer data, and scientists are still trying to figure out why these trees specifically are outliers in this data set. Overall, there was no conclusive evidence of a violation of scientific integrity by researchers at the CRU. Climate alarmism is the use of scare tactics by believers in climate change to convince people to take action and make changes to slow the effects of climate change on the human population. Some examples of these tactics include reporting lists of things that could go extinct thanks to climate change and trying to convince people that without changing habits, we could lose the ability to eat certain foods or do certain things (Williams, 2016). There are some conspiracy theories surrounding the use of these tactics. There is a theory that claims that climate scientists are using this alarmism as a way to make money (Black, 2014). Theorists believe that climate scientists are prolonging the life of the ruse because the grant money that they get to pursue the science is somehow making them rich. However, there is no evidence to support these claims. There is evidence to support claims that climate change in costing money, but not on the research itself. Extreme weather events associated with climate change have already cost millions of dollars on infrastructure. This includes taking precautionary measures against rising sea level. If anything, scientists have worked hard to inform the public about the impending negative effects of global warming and climate change, giving governments the tools they need to implement legislation assisting in reducing these effects. In 2012, Donald Trump tweeted that he believed that China is using the concept of global warming to reduce and/or eliminate manufacturing competition in the United States (Wong, 2016). He has since said that it was a joke and that he just believes that it is just a very, very expensive form of tax and that China couldnt care less about what carbon wastes they put into the environment (Jacobson, 2016). Trumps claims about China have caused the country to come forward to explain that they plan to continue trying to put an end to the negative effects of climate change, no matter what (Wong, 2016). This seems to be a role reversal for the United States and China, and China may need to take on a leadership role in worldwide efforts to slow the effects of global warming and climate change. Despite saying that he was joking, Trump has continued to question the existence of global warming several times since he posted this tweet, and even claimed that colder weather patterns forced people be hind the hoax to coin the phrase climate change as a way to be more inclusive of all changes in temperature (Scherer, 2016). Some conspiracy theorists have shared beliefs that global warming is a tax scam that is costing taxpayers over $1.5 trillion a year. In his speech published to Breitbart News, James Delingpole explains how global warming is negatively affecting taxpayers (2016). He first calls global warming an industry, saying that the money we spend on the global warming industry is roughly the amount we spend every year on the online shopping industry (Delingpole, 2016). He goes on to say that the difference between online shopping and global warming is that the former provides people with something that they want, while the latter is a con. If the government were to stop funding the global warming industry through grants and taxpayer subsidies, then it would be worth almost nothing, according to Delingpole. He uses wind farms as an example, saying that theyre expensive, hazardous, and environmentally unfriendly because they kill birds and bats and utilize rare earth metals from China (Delingpole, 2016). Later in his speech, he asks his audience if they truly want to live in a world where those that work hard for their money have it taken from them to be spent on frivolities like the global warming industry, and then he says that this use of funds is causing harm in other ways as well. These include his beliefs that teaching climate science in schools is a sort of brainwashing of schoolchildren and that the misallocation of resources is similar to that of Communist countries (Delingpole, 2016). Steve Bannon and Breitbart News have claimed that global warming is actually invented by activists, scientists, and climate researchers to gain economic and government power (Lavelle, 2016). Bannon has said that government bills and other legislation that combat climate change are madness (Lavelle, 2016). At one point, Breitbart News actually suggested that a group of Marxists had taken control of the Vatican after Pope Francis urged people to work toward stopping climate change and protecting the environment. Bannon blames capitalism for causing so many issues with alternative energy, saying that members of private businesses have been receiving government subsidies for investing in or utilizing forms of alternative energy. However, subsidies for fossil fuels are actually higher than those for alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel subsidies are currently totaling at almost $500 billion, which is more than four times the amount spent on subsidies for renewable energy sources. Breit bart News has also claimed that the recent signing of the Paris climate agreement is a threat to U.S. sovereignty because it was created to evade the U.S. Constitutions requirement that treaties must be ratified by a two-thirds majority of the Senate (Pollak, 2015). There are several ways in which the issues surrounding global warming and climate change have arisen in pop culture and society, other than typical arguments on social media and rants from partisan news sources. Al Gores documentary An Inconvenient Truth highlights the impacts that humans are having on average global temperature rise, which is having devastating effects on the planet. Leonardo DiCaprio released his own documentary on climate change in late 2016 in which he discusses the ways in which humans have affected global climate, and also the ways that humans can help to resolve the issue. Coined by Science Friday, the cli-fi genre is a genre of movies, books, and even some music that utilize climate change as an integral part of the plot. Some examples of the movies from this genre include The Matrix and A.I.: Artificial Intelligence (Echter, 2016). The long debated topic of global warming and climate change has sparked the creation of several conspiracy theories. These theories have been disseminated by conservatives or right-wing groups that deny the science behind climate change, or believe that liberal or left-wing groups are using the science to push their agendas. While many of these theories have been debunked, people continue to believe that the government is wasting tax money on research, most likely because of a constant distrust in government. References Black, D. (2014, May 20). Vast global warming conspiracy exposed: Column. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Carrington, D. (2011, November 22). QA: Climategate Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Debunking Misinformation About Stolen Climate Emails in the Climategate Manufactured Controversy. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Delingpole, J. (2016, March 28). Climate Change: The Greatest-Ever Conspiracy Against The Taxpayer. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Echter, B. (2016, April 8). 16 Pieces of Pop Culture About Climate Change, From Atwood to Spielberg to the Pixies. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Graham, S. (2000, January 18). Svante Arrhenius. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Interview Dr. S. Fred Singer. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Jacobson, L. (2016, June 3). Did Trump say climate change was a Chinese hoax? Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Lavelle, M. (2016, November 16). Steve Bannons amazing trip from climate conspiracy theorist to a Trump White House post. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Pollak, J. (2015, December 13). Climate Change Deal Is a Threat to U.S. Sovereignty. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Scherer, J. (2016, November 17). China tells Trump climate change is not a Chinese hoax. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Scientific consensus: Earths climate is warming. (2016, July 29). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Williams, T., Ph.D. (2016, November 7). The Real Politics of Fear? Climate Alarmism. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Wong, E. (2016, November 18). Trump Has Called Climate Change a Chinese Hoax. Beijing Says It Is Anything But. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Friday, October 25, 2019

Perspectives of the Characters in The Young Housewife :: Young Housewife Essays

Perspectives of the Characters in The Young Housewife From the first stanza we decipher that there is a young housewife moving about her husbands house in negligee. Some important questions that come to my mind are: Is she alone?, and why is she moving? The answer to both of these questions we do not know. Is this young housewife dancing around the house in her negligee because her and her husband had a wonderfully romantic night, or is she merely shuffling along performing her wifely chores and duties? Better yet, does the young housewife really exist, or is she just a fantasy of the passer-by? This brings me to my next question . . .Is the narrator a man or a woman? It seems very easy to assume that the narrator is a man, because the author is a man, but other than that there is no real evidence proving narrative gender. In stanza one all we know about the narrator is that they are alone in a car. In stanza two all we know is that the narrator compares the young housewife to a "fallen leaf". And in stanza three, the final stanza, as the narrator passes on by, he or she bows, and smiles. As far as I am concerned the passer-by could be a female who is a close friend or relative who is merely commenting on the housewife as they pass by her house. To me The Young House Wife is about beauty, not beauty from a young fertile woman alone in negligee, but the beauty of everyday, the beauty of life. This driver, who is her passer-by compares the housewife to a fallen leaf. This fallen leaf could mean many things. The narrator could be insinuating that the young housewife is in a fallen state, maybe trapped in some kind of extra-marital sin perhaps. Maybe the narrator is trying to warn us that the housewife is sick and perhaps that is why she is not yet properly dressed though the morning is almost at an end. The meaning that I prefer to take with me is somewhat different from these perspectives. I would like to think of the young housewife as the beauty of autumn.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

My Life in College Essay

My Life in College BY arce1921 My Life I am attending this college success class due to the fact I had very poor grades in my previous semesters. I have been attending Palo Alto College for about four years now off and on of course. After four years of college I wish my GPA was more worthy to show to others. After the first semester of college I still was undecided on my major and what I wanted to do with my life. I took a liking for the arts when I was in high school. During high school I was attending an art program called Say Si (San Antonio Artistic Youth) I attend this program all through my high school years. After graduating from this program I was offered a Job in their ABC (artist building communities) program. In this program I was able to mentor children that have no art programs in their current school. We also would teach at different types of children shelters and children hospitals. I enjoy teaching very much, I was looking into teaching art in a school district. But after teaching for 4 years I think it takes a special person to teach little kids. I really don’t have the patiences for teaching 2nd and 3rd graders. I current teach but only older kids. Two semesters have passed and I lacked off on my school and I was going through a rough time in my life with my family. I picked up a second Job due to the fact my teaching Job was only two days out of the week. I started working in the learning about cars and how they work. But after awhile my school schedule did not fit into my work schedule. My boss would give me a hard time about my school life all the time. I had the craziest schedule while working with auto parts. I would go to work in the morning and go to school during my lunch break and I would also go to school after work as while. This was everyday for almost a year and six months. It was two uch for me and I had to withdraw from all my classes and it went down hill from that moment on. I current have a new Job still working with kids but its more personal. I started working for a company called Roy Maas Youth Alternative . This organization houses in children taken by cps custody and probational children. I really enjoy my current job it makes me feel great helping these kids . A lot of these kids come from broken homes and bad backgrounds . Talking to these children helped me decide what I want to do with the rest of my life. I want to pursue social work as my career. This semester is going to be my new turning point in life. I finally have no trouble with my Job or my family. This is going to be the right time for me to get my grades back up to were I want them to be at . I also will start making more time to study and less time slacking off. Teaching art will still be part of my life and hopefully I can squeeze it into my new career. tutoring department to my advantage . I never did go to tutoring in the past semesters, maybe if I took some time out to go I would have done much better in my classes. I am looking forward to keeping my education on track and not derailing off my prize which is to receive my masters in social work.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Thesis (Parking Area in the State University)

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Rationale Every individual has only one life; so, it must be protected from any forms of accidents that may cause death. Accidents can happen anywhere at anytime and could happen unexpectedly. There are accidents that happen due to negligence of both the victim and the offender. The NORSU-BSC Campus is a school where motor vehicles are allowed to get in and out of the campus. There are owners of motor vehicles who are roaming around the campus even during classes and with tampered mufflers which destruct classes. Moreover, some motor vehicles are parked anywhere or even along the pathways where they cause problems to many. This indiscriminate parking activity is not desired for a university that promotes good image and sets as an example of peace and orderliness to the public. It is along this line that the researchers who are future implementers of school rules and regulations would like to find out the volume of these motor vehicles entering the campus, and to identify the problems caused by indiscriminate parking. The findings of this study would help NORSU-BSC in designing a parking area to avoid problems and untoward accidents brought about by indiscriminate parking. Statement of the Problem This study would like to identify the indiscriminate parking of motor vehicles in Negros Oriental State University, Bayawan City. It sought to answer the following ques-tions: 1. )What is the profile of the respondents in terms of 1. 1. Sex; 1. 2. Age; and 1. 3. Course? 2. )What is the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus? 3. What are the observed usual parking areas of motor vehicles? 4. )What are the reasons in choosing parking areas for motor vehicles? 5. )What are the problems caused by the existing parking preferences of motor vehicle owners (indiscriminate parking)? Significance of the Study Negros Oriental State University, Bayawan Sta. Catalina Campus comprises four colleges with growing enrolment each year. With an increase in enrolment also comes an increase in the volume of vehicles that come and go, entering and leaving the campus everyday. This daily routine of students and teachers has created a problem as to the most appropriate area for parking motor vehicle. This being the case, the researchers who are students in Criminology have embarked in conducting a study on the indiscriminate park-ing of motor vehicles in the campus, the result of which shall prove beneficial to the Uni-versity and the clientele, students, visitors, and the faculty and staff who own motor ve-hicles that enter and leave the campus on a temporary or permanent basis daily. To have a proper parking area of motor vehicles in the school campus brings ad-vantages. First, it can eliminate the disturbance of classes because of the noisy sound mufflers of the motor vehicles. Second, it can avoid accidents inside the school premises. Third, it can make the criminology students vigilant of their duties as implementers in preparation for their professional jobs. Lastly, it can give peace of mind to owners if their motor vehicles are parked properly. This study would also benefit the following: NORSU. The result of this study would help the administration plan a parking area for motor vehicles of both the students and the faculty and staff. Motorists. This would help the motorists secure their motor vehicles by parking them in a designated area. Students. The students would be safe from any accidents resulting in indiscriminate park-ing and pathways are safe for them. NORSU BSC Campus. The NORSU campus would have a peaceful and orderly environ-ment since the motor vehicles are parked in their designated parking area. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study is limited only to the responses of the students, faculty and staff of Ne-gros Oriental State University, Bayawan City Campus who are wners of motor vehicles and are getting in and out of the school campus. This study started last August 2010 and ends on November 2010. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined to facilitate understanding of concepts and terms used in the study: Criminology Student. A student of NORSU–BSC who can be the implementers of the school rules and regulations especially in the proper parking of motor vehicles. Faculty and Staff. The school personnel who are teaching and are non-teaching who own motor vehicles that are coming in and out of the school campus of NORSU-BSC. Indiscriminate Parking. Refers to a vehicle parked anywhere in the campus preferred by the motor vehicle owner. Motor Vehicles. Any vehicles propelled by any power other than muscular power using the public highway, but excepting road rollers, trolley cars, street- sweepers, sprinklers, lawn mower, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used only in public highways, vehicles which run only on rails or tracks, tractors, and trailers and traction engines of all kinds used exclusively for agricultural purposes. Parking. The area where most of the motor vehicles have been brought to stop on shoulder or proper edge of a highway or pathway, and remain in active in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time. Parking Area. An area where the motor vehicles are parked in a designated area. Stopping. The motor vehicles have been brought to a stop on shoulder or proper edge of a highway or pathway, and remain in active in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time. Undesignated Parking Area. An area where the owners park their motor vehicles in their preferred areas. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY This study is anchored on the Classical Theory by Dr. Cesare Lombroso. He argued the study and treatment of the offenders as an individual, rather than of focusing attention on the abstract crime in the classical manner. He generally supported reformatory treat-ment of all prisoners except born criminals. It established the fact that 18th century law was generally administered within the basis of corruption, arbitrariness and cruelty. Under the way for reformation, it was pointed out that criminal law remained and demonstrated what the faults were and the remedies might be. It advocated the restriction of the power of the judges through legislation which would provide penalties based on the calculated harm of the given crime o society. The classical theory regarded the criminal law as originating in torts or wrongs to individuals. According to this theory, all wrongs produced efforts at self-redress in the injured parties and were therefore treated as injuries to particular individuals. Later, by a series of transi-tions, the group took charge of the transaction and the wrong to the state. This theory however, is inadequate for it assumes the priority of the individual to the group. . Human evolves in various ways to make its members conform and behave according the norms and standards set by them. These process takes forms institutionalized means of making laws by the implementers. The manifestations of punishes in a particular conduct because it is believed harmful to permit such conduct to exist or continue. Some instances even though the dependant did not know nor to untold to commit any wrong shall be penalized. Man is essentially a moral creature with an absolutely free will to choose between good and evil and therefore more stress upon the criminal himself and also basic criminal liability is human free will and the purpose of penalty is retribution. Endeavor to establish a Mechanical and Proportion between crime and penalty Since man and lunatics cannot calculate pleasure and pain they should be regarded as criminal or to be punished. Man composes the nation, and this nation in order to continue its existence, has to police itself, set up rules and regulations for itself in order to guide and educate its inhabitants. Because of the systematic movements and activities done by the people, who at the same time governmenting themselves, the so called came into existence could not exist in a group of people who are living in a territory unless they govern-themselves with rules and regulations. If they are not able to establish peace and order among themselves, the law of the jungle would prevail, these means that only the fit will survive. But man is higher than animals and plants. He is wise and uses his power to think unlike the animals and plants that are only governed by their instinct. So, in order to preserve and mankind, he has to iscipline himself and live in accordance with the rules and regulations he himself had established in the society. Human behavior swayed by the ideals which emerged in their daily life. Conse-quently, they give greater emphasis to the prevention of crime and to measures designed to protect society. Ideas of moral guilt and the categorization of crimes gave way to reco gnition of environmental influences and individual differences among offenders. Classification of criminals were based on their behavior or characteristics in terms of physique, heredity, psychology, and environment. CLASSICAL THEORY (Dr. Cesare Lombroso) Figure 1. The Theoretical Framework of the Study CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY The conceptual framework describes the flow and direction of this study. In the independent variables, the researchers identified the profile of the respondents and the problems encountered by indiscriminate parking of motor vehicles in NORSU-BSC. The dependent variables are the result of the study conducted. 1. ) Profile of the respondents 1. 1 Age; 1. 2 Sex; and 1. 3 Course 2. ) Volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus. . ) Common areas where indiscriminate parking is observed. 4. ) Reason for indiscriminate parking. 5. ) Problems encountered by indiscriminate parking. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES Designated common parking area of motor vehicles in NORSU-BSC Assessment of indiscriminate parking of motor vehicles in NORSU-BSC. Figure 2: The Conceptual Framework of the Study RELATED LITERATURE The University of Bradley is a school where parking of motor vehicles is strictly implemented. Any motor vehicle parked on university property in regulated spaces must display a valid Bradley University parking permit or pass. The type of permit indicates the areas where the vehicle may be parked. Any vehicle which has accumulated six (6) or more unpaid parking citations or which inhibits traffic flow, hampers fire protection, is parked illegally in a reserved or handicapped space, blocks handicapped access, displays a lost/stolen or forged/altered parking permit is subject to immediate towing and impoundment. Parking permits are required from 7:00 a. . to 7:00 p. m. , Monday through Friday. The Visitors lot is a reserved area. All faculty, staff and students are prohibited from parking within this area unless otherwise notified. These regulations are subject to change without notice when necessary to facilitate the parking or safety program of the University. When changes are necessary and have been approved by the University, an announcement will be made, if possible, in app ropriate university publications, prior to the effective date of the change. ([email  protected] du) Likewise, The University of the Pacific is a school wherein the rules and regula-tions about parking of motor vehicles is strictly imposed and well implemented. There are provisions that regulate the university and must be imposed by the Department of Public Safety without fear or favor. The provisions of the California Vehicle Code and University regulations issued by the Board of Regents of the University will be enforced by the Department of Public Safety on all property owned and/or operated by the University Parking and traffic regulations are established under the authority of Section 21113 of the California Vehicle Code. These regulations apply to all faculties, staff, students and visitors of the university and are intended to promote pedestrian and vehicular safety, make parking facilities available to all members of the campus community, ensure access at all times for ambulance, firefighting equipment and other emergency/service vehicles and provide proper collection of parking fees. All motor vehicles parked on university property must either have a properly authorized temporary parking permit which is displayed according to instructions on the permit or a valid annual decal. Vehicles displaying arking permits or decals which are improperly located are subject to citation. Permission to drive or park on university property may be denied by proper authority at anytime. Possession of a current parking permit or pass does not guarantee a parking space. The responsibility of locating a legal parking space in any given lot or street rests solely with the holder of the permit or pass. Vehicle Maintenan ce is not permitted on campus. Violators are subject to citations and charges for cleanup. Heavy fines are imposed for oil/petroleum products left on the roadways. The maximum speed limit on campus streets is 15 miles per hour for all vehicles. The parking lot speed limit is 10 miles per hour for all vehicles. No person shall drive, stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle whether attended or not, upon any drive-way, sidewalk, landscaped area or any area not marked for parking or in any other location that will obstruct the view of any sign posted by the Department of Public Safety. Vehicles can not be used as living quarters while parked on campus. Vehicles must be fully contained in the stalls/areas marked for parking. Diagonally and perpendicular parked vehicles must have one wheel within 18† of the curb. Both inside wheels of a parallel parked vehicle must have the wheels within 18† of the curb. All parking along roadways and areas not otherwise marked must be parallel and facing the direction of traffic. Visitors to the campus between 7:00 a. m to 5:00 p. m must display a temporary parking permit on their vehicle. If parking in the reserved visitor’s parking near the tower you must obtain a temporary parking permit from the tower lobby. Park Ur Self permit dispensers are located in front of the Faye Spanos Concert Hall and in the swimming pool parking lot. These permits are valid in â€Å"B† lots. ([email  protected] of the Pacific. com) Providing adequate parking facilities and the proper supervision of campus traffic is a major activity on university campuses throughout the United States. This is especially true at institutions like Southern Connecticut State University, where a large part of the student body commutes daily. To protect students and visitors to the university from automobile accidents, as well as to provide security for motor vehicles parked on the campus, the following rules and regulations must be observed. Failure to comply may lead to the issuance of a university parking ticket and/or a state motor vehicle infraction, the towing of the vehicle at the owner's expense, and when warranted, a disciplinary action by the university. The university reserves the right to tow or impound any vehicle that is illegally parked or parked in a way that constitutes a serious hazard, impedes vehicle or pedestrian movements, or impairs the operation of emergency equipment and/or the making of repairs. Owners will be required to pay all the costs involved in removing and impounding vehicles. In a spirit of cooperation with the New Haven and Hamden communities, students are asked not to park their vehicles on city streets in residential areas adjacent to the campus. ([email  protected] Connecticut State University. om) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The researchers focused on how the respondents park their motor vehicles in the absence of designated parking area. The researchers conducted a survey on the campus and listed down the chassis numbers or plate numbers, color and model of motor vehicles entering the school campus. The researchers used the listed motor vehicles as the basis to the number of respondents to be included of the study. Research Design In this study, the descriptive survey method was employed utilizing the ques-tionnaire as the main tool in gathering the data. The data were then treated statistically to give a scientific analysis. Research Environment This study was conducted at Negros Oriental State University Bayawan Sta. -Catalina campus. Research Respondents The respondents of this study were the motor vehicle owners getting inside the school campus and who parked motor vehicles indiscriminately. Research Sampling Table 1. 0 Number of Respondents RespondentsPopulation of the Respon-dentsPurposive Sampling (n) Faculty and Staff2525 Students132132 The researchers listed down the plate numbers or chassis numbers, color and model of the motor vehicles entering the school campus to have a basis of the number of respondents. There were 132 respondents from the student and 25 respondents from the faculty and staff. The over all total is 157 respondents who have motor vehicles in NOR-SU-BSC. The researchers used the purposive sampling method. Only owners of the listed chosen motor vehicle owners were considered the sample as respondents. Statistical Tool The researchers used the questionnaire as the statistical tool of the study. ORGANIZATIONAL OF THE STUDY Chapter 1 of this study presents the problem and its scope, the rationale of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms, theoretical framework of the study, conceptual framework of the study, related literature and related studies, research methodology which includes the research design, research instrument used and data gathering procedure of the study. Chapter 2 presents the analysis of the data. It also presents the different data. Chapter 3 encompasses the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations, which consist of the highlights of the findings, the conclusions and the recommendations drawn from the study. CHAPTER 2 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data and its finding in relation to the problem of this study. Table 2. 0 Profile of Students n=132 n= 25 ProfileStudentsFaculty f%f% SEX : Male12292. 421768 Female107. 58832 Total13225 AGE : 15-209571. 9700 21-253425. 76520 26-3032. 27832 31 above001248 Total13225 Course : BSIT4332. 8 BSCRIM4836. 36 INFOTECH1511. 36 COMSCI21. 15 BSED64. 57 BSA10. 76 BSHM96. 82 AMDNA10. 76 BSBA75. 30 Total132 Table 2. 0 on the preceding page shows the personal profile of the student respon-dents. In terms of Sex; there were 122 or 92. 42% male and 10 or 7. 58% female, and the faculty respondents. For sex; there were 17 or 68% male and 8 or 32% female. According to the responses, respo ndents were mostly males. The age bracket of the respondents was from 15-20, their average age frequency was 95 or 71. 97%, in the age average bracket of 21-25 years old had an average age fre-quency of 34 or 25. 6%, and the age bracket of 26-30 years old had an average frequency of 3 or 2. 27%. For the faculty, in the age bracket of 21-25 the average age frequency was 5 or 20%, in the age bracket 26-30 years old has an average age frequency was 8 or 32%, and that of the age bracket of 31 years old and above had the highest average age frequen-cy of 12 or 48%. In the courses of the respondents, there were 43 or 32. 58% in the BSIT, 48 or 36. 36% in the BSCrim, 15 or 11. 36% in the InfoTech, 2 or 1. 15% in the ComSci, 6 or 4. 55% in the BSED, 1 or 0. 76% in the BSA, 9 or 6. 82% in the BSHM, 1 or 0. 76% in the AMDNA, 7 or 5. 0% in the BSBA. Most of the respondents came from the Bachelor of Science in Criminology. Table 3. 0 Volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus n= 15 7 Registered Motor VehiclesTotal Number Faculty25 Students132 Total157 Table 3 shows the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus which totaled to 157 motor vehicles, 25 motor vehicles coming from the faculty and 132 motor vehicles coming from the students. This totaled number volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus is bases of the researchers in spreading the questionnaires as the researchers sampling method in conducting the study. Table 4. 0 Common Observed Parking Areas of Motor Vehicles Faculty: n= 25 Students: n= 132 Parking areasf%f% Shady Areas1144%2216. 67 Near the room312%118. 33 Pathway Shoulders 14%10. 76 Accessible Parking Areas1040%9874. 2 Total25132 Table 4 shows that the faculty chose the area of parking in a shady area with a fre-quency of 11 and a percentage of 44% while students preferred accessible parking areas with a frequency of 98 and a percentage of 74. 24%. This shows that motorist failed to fol-low the temporary designated area for parking. They preferred for their personal conveni-ence. There were fewer responses on near the room and pathway shoulders as their parking areas. Table 5. 0 Reasons for Choosing Parking Areas Faculty: n= 25 Students: n= 132 Reasons for Parkingf%f% Near the Classroom3122418. 18 Safety17689874. 24 Accessibility520107. 58 Total25132 Table 5 shows the responses of the different respondents on the reasons for choos-ing parking areas. Most of the students responded that they chose the area for the safety with the average of 98 or 74. 24% the same reason for the faculty with a frequency of 17 or 68%. A few responses on the reasons of near the classroom and accessibility. This means that the owners of the motor vehicles chose the area for their convenience. They are looking forward for the safety of their motor vehicles in the sense of no matter what happen in the area where they parked. This means that they don’t care the other motor vehicles as long as their motor vehicle is safety. Table 6. 0 Problems Caused by Indiscriminate Parking Faculty: n= 25 Students: n= 132 Problemsf%f% Disturbance of classes10404231. 82 Narrowing the pathways10404836. 6 Eyesore3121511. 36 Accident prone due to freedom to cross the cam-pus streets in preferred speed 2 8 27 20. 45 Total25132 Table 6 shows the responses on the problems caused by indiscriminate parking. Most of the respondents both the faculty and the students responded that it caused distur-bance of classes and thus resulted to narrowing the pathways with a frequency of 10 and a percentage of 40%, 42 and 31. 82%, 48 and 36. 36% res pectively, followed by eyesore and caused accident prone due to freedom to cross the campus street in preferred speed. Based on the results, most of the problems were disturbance of classes and narrowing pathways in the campus. This means that these motorists have less care on what is going on in terms of disturbing classes and narrowing pathways with their motor vehicle. CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study is focused on the motor vehicles coming in and out the school premises of NORSU-BSC this school year 2010-2011. Summary: This study would like to identify the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus of Negros Oriental State University, Bayawan City. It sought to answer the following questions. 1. ) What is the profile of the respondents in terms of 1. 1. Age; 1. 2. Sex; and 1. 3. Course? 2. ) What is the volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus? 3. ) What are the common areas where indiscriminate parking is observed? 4. ) What are the reasons for the indiscriminate parking? 5. ) What are the problems caused by indiscriminate parking? Findings: 1. The personal profile of the student respondents. In terms of Sex; there were 122 or 92. 42% male and 10 or 7. 58% female, and the faculty respondents. For sex; there were 17 or 68% male and 8 or 32% female. According to the responses, respon-dents were mostly males. The age bracket of the respondents was from 15-20, their average age frequency was 95 or 71. 97%, in the age average bracket of 21-25 years old had an average age frequency of 34 or 25. 76%, and the age bracket of 26-30 years old had an average frequency of 3 or 2. 27%. For the faculty, in the age bracket of 21-25 the average age frequency was 5 or 20%, in the age bracket 26-30 years old has an average age frequency was 8 or 32%, and that of the age bracket of 31 years old and above had the highest average age frequency of 12 or 48%. In the courses of the respondents, there were 43 or 32. 58% in the BSIT, 48 or 36. 36% in the BSCrim, 15 or 11. 36% in the InfoTech, 2 or 1. 15% in the ComSci, 6 or 4. 55% in the BSED, 1 or 0. 76% in the BSA, 9 or 6. 82% in the BSHM, 1 or 0. 76% in the AMDNA, 7 or 5. 30% in the BSBA. Most of the respondents came from the Bachelor of Science in Criminology. 2. The volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus which totaled to 157 motor vehicles, 25 motor vehicles coming from the faculty and 132 motor vehicles coming from the students. 3. The faculty chose the area of parking in a shady area with a frequency of 11 and a percentage of 44% while students preferred accessible parking areas with a frequency of 98 and a percentage of 74. 24%. 4. The responses of the different respondents on the reasons for choosing parking areas. Most of the students responded that they chose the area for the safety with the average of 98 or 74. 24% the same reason for the faculty with a frequency of 17 or 68%. A few responses on the reasons of near the classroom and accessibility. 5. The responses on the problems caused by indiscriminate parking. Most of the res-pondents both the faculty and the students responded that it caused disturbance of classes and thus resulted to narrowing the pathways with a frequency of 10 and a percentage of 40%, 42 and 31. 82%, 48 and 36. 36% respectively, followed by eye-sore and caused accident prone due to freedom to cross the campus street in pre-ferred speed. Conclusions: 1. Most of the students and faculty respondents are male and in the age bracket of 15-20 and 31 and above respectively. Most of the student respondents are taking up BS Criminology, followed closely by those taking up BS Industrial Technology 2. The volume of registered motor vehicles entering the campus is 157. 3. Most of the faculty parked their motor vehicles in shady areas, while most of the students chose to park their motor vehicles in areas accessible to them. 4. Safety of the motor vehicle is the mostly responded reason for choosing the parking area. 5. The mostly identified caused by indiscriminate parking is narrowing of pathways. Recommendation: 1. The campus must strict in providing one parking area for the motor vehicles of stu-dents and faculty to avoid problems and accidents brought about by indiscriminate parking.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom Parkinsons Disease essay

buy custom Parkinson's Disease essay The video My Father, My Brother and Me is the story of a FRONTLINE correspondent Dave Iverson. In the year 2004, Dave Iverson received the shocking news that he had Parkinsons disease as his father and brother had earlier years ago. The Parkinsons disease affects over a million people in the United States. The Parkinsons disease is a neurological disease that exhibits degenerative disorders in the affected people. It is clear that its causes are still a mystery to scientists and doctors and finding them has proved a frustrating elusive. This essay aims at demystifying the major concepts that the narrator brings out on the video with regard to Parkinsons disease, the challenges faced by scientists in finding a cure, and the controversies that have arisen in research on stem cells in role in finding a cure. Lastly the essay will find the approaches that could be used by people having Parkinsons disease in coping with it the disease. The narrator in the video, Iverson after being diagnosed as suffering from the Parkinsons disease begins carrying out research in understanding the disease that had taken a toll on his family. It is on this journey that these four concepts that form the basis of this essay have come out with clarity. It is clear that Iverson discovered that the causes of Parkinsons are universally unknown but he sets on researching on identifying the roles those genetic proclivities and environmental toxins play as suspected causes of Parkinsons. It is in this quest that one of the doctors suggests to Iverson that his genetic form of the Parkinsons disease was genetically transmitted down his ancestry and possibly from one of his seafaring ancestors. Another doctor also proposes that his Parkinsons was probably caused by MPTP, a chemical used in producing popular herbicides in the 1980s. This chemical compound was found in an exacting strain of heroin in which it exhibited Parkinsons symptoms in the patients diagnosed as having developed reactions to i (FRONTLINE, 2012). The second concept that comes out in the video is Iversons interaction with other victims of the Parkinson disease. For instance, in his conversation with writer Michael Kinsley and Michael J. Fox an actor, it is laid out that people having Parkinson caught up in the politics of Parkinson's research and finding its cure. It is clear that Bush administration vetoed the research on the use of stem cells in finding the cure for Parkinsonso the researchers lost funding from the federal. Dave Iverson notes that this decision made Parkinson disease patients to suffer and their hope in getting a cure for this disease diminished progressively for six years. However, with the coming of a new president, Barrack Obama there is a hope that the research will again get federal funding. The third concept that comes out in the video is the role of genetics as a cause of the Parkinsons disease. This contrasts to previous researches carried out in this field and has nullified the role of genetics as a cause of Parkinsons. To negate this conclusion Iverson volunteered at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville for a study on the role of genetics on Parkinsons disease based on his family history. Six genes whose mutations are possible causes of Parkinsons disease were identified. This identification has made possible finding of cure to Parkinsons more optimistic than it was ten years ago. This was according to Matthew Farrer a geneticist at the mayo clinic (FRONTLINE, 2012). The last concept in the video is the use of brain repair through surgical procedures as means of compensating the lack of dopamine that characterizes Parkinsons disease patients. This brain repairis through fetal cell brain transplant in the patients. The use of this method to remove Parkinsons disease is not 100% fool-proof. This is because it has resulted in disappointing results in which it has catalyzed Parkinsons ailment in the patients after the surgery (FRONTLINE, 2012). Over the years more and more knowledge on Parkinsons has been garnered by scientists but the hope of finding a cure has faded all the more. This is because the information gathered has depicted the complexity eluded by Parkinsons disease thus making it hard to find an absolute cure for the disease. However, the information has paved way for more inventive and better ways of minimizing its effects on the patients (Lichtenstein Creative Media, 2005). L-dopa has been the major treatment drug for Parkinsons but its continued use by the patients for long time reduces its effectiveness. This has become a big challenge in finding a cure for the disease with new methods such as implanting a pacemaker-like device in the brain in question (Lichtenstein Creative Media, 2005). The practical difficulties that have arisen from the stem cell procedures have led to a number of leading scientists seeing the use of stem cells as no longer the cure for Parkinsons. This is because of the complexity in using it given that the human brain is not a pincushion that scientists can keep opening and closing while plucking and putting cells in it (FRONTLINE, 2012). It is also clear that experiments carried out on stem cells have not been as successful as anticipated. This has necessitated halting the use of this procedure in treating Parkinsons disease patients until a later date when the outcomes will be more positive. Despite that there is no cure for Parkinsons disease, at the end of the film Iverson gives people suffering from Parkinsons hope from unlikely place. It is clear Iverson had discovered from a new research carried out that regular exercises may help delay or slow down Parkinsons disease from progressing in the patients. It had proved that properly designed exercise programs for people suffering from Parkinsons disease would yield better results than medications and surgeries that were being given the top-notch in treating the disease. Buy custom Parkinson's Disease essay

Monday, October 21, 2019

10,000 Soldiers Die in Tyrol From Avalanches During World War I

10,000 Soldiers Die in Tyrol From Avalanches During World War I During World War I, a battle waged between Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers amidst the cold, snowy, mountainous region of South Tyrol. While freezing cold and enemy fire were obviously dangerous, even more deadly were the heavily snow-padded peaks that surrounded the troops. Avalanches brought tons of snow and rock down these mountains, killing at an estimated 10,000 Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers in December 1916. Italy Enters World War I When World War I began after the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand  in June 1914, countries across Europe stood by their allegiances and declared war to support their own allies. Italy, on the other hand, did not. According to the Triple Alliance, first formed in 1882, Italy, Germany, and Austro-Hungary were allies. However, the terms of the Triple Alliance were specific enough to allow Italy, who had neither a strong military nor a powerful navy, to shirk their alliance by finding a way to remain neutral at the beginning of World War I. As the fighting continued into 1915, the Allied Forces (specifically Russia and Great Britain) began to woo the Italians into joining their side in the war. The lure for Italy was the promise of Austro-Hungarian lands, specifically a contested, Italian-speaking area in Tyrol, located in south-western Austro-Hungary. After more than two months of negotiations, the Allied promises were finally enough to bring Italy into World War I. Italy declared war on Austro-Hungary.on May 23, 1915. Getting the Higher Position With this new declaration of war, Italy sent troops north to attack Austro-Hungary, while Austro- Hungary sent troops to the southwest to defend itself. The border between these two countries was located in the mountain ranges of the Alps, where these soldiers fought for the next two years. In all military struggles, the side with the higher ground has the advantage. Knowing this, each side tried to climb higher into the mountains. Dragging heavy equipment and weaponry with them, soldiers climbed as high as they could and then dug in.   Tunnels and trenches were dug and blasted into the mountainsides, while barracks and forts were built to help protect the soldiers from the freezing cold. Deadly Avalanches While contact with the enemy was obviously dangerous, so were the frigid living conditions. The area, regularly icy, was particularly so from the unusually heavy snowstorms of the 1915-1916 winter, which left some areas covered in 40 feet of snow. In December 1916, the explosions from tunnel-building and from fighting took its toll for the snow began to fall off the mountains in avalanches. On December 13, 1916, a particularly powerful avalanche brought an estimated 200,000 tons of ice and rock on top of an Austrian barracks near Mount Marmolada. While 200 soldiers were able to be rescued, another 300 were killed. In the following days, more avalanches fell on troops both Austrian and Italian. The avalanches were so severe that an estimated 10,000 troops were killed by avalanche during December 1916. After the War These 10,000 deaths by avalanche did not end the war. Fighting continued into 1918, with a total of 12 battles fought in this frozen battlefield, most near the Isonzo River. When the war did end, the remaining, cold troops left the mountains for their homes, leaving much of their equipment behind.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Choosing an Ivy League Business School

Choosing an Ivy League Business School The Six Ivy League Business Schools Ivy League schools attract intellectuals from around the world and have a legendary reputation for academic excellence. There are eight Ivy League schools, but only six Ivy League business schools. Princeton University and Brown University do not have business schools. The six Ivy League business schools include: Columbia Business School - Columbia UniversitySamuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management - Cornell UniversityHarvard Business School - Harvard UniversityTuck School of Business - Dartmouth CollegeWharton School - University of PennsylvaniaYale School of Management - Yale University Columbia Business School Columbia Business School is known for its diverse entrepreneurial community. The schools location in the business hub of New York City provides unparalleled immersion in the business world. Columbia offers many different graduate programs, including an MBA program, executive MBA programs, doctoral programs, and Master of Science programs in several business disciplines. Students who are seeking an international experience should explore Columbia’s pioneering program with London Business School,  EMBA-Global Americas, and Europe, or the  EMBA-Global Asia, created in partnership with the University of Hong Kong. Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management Cornell Universitys Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, more commonly known as Johnson, takes a performance-learning approach to business education. Students learn theoretical frameworks, apply them to real-world situations in actual business settings, and receive continuous feedback from qualified experts. Johnson offers the Cornell MBA five different ways: one-year MBA (Ithaca), two-year MBA (Ithaca), tech-MBA (Cornell Tech), executive MBA (Metro NYC), and Cornell-Queens MBA (Offered in conjunction with Queens University). Additional business education options include executive education and Ph.D. programs. Students seeking a global experience should look to Johnsons newest program, the Cornell-Tsinghua MBA/FMBA, a dual degree program offered by  Johnson at Cornell University  and  PBC School of Finance (PBCSF) at Tsinghua University. Harvard Business School The overall mission of Harvard Business School is to educate leaders who make a difference. The school does this through its educational programs, faculty, and influence around the world. HBS program offerings include a two-year MBA program, executive education, and eight full-time doctoral programs leading to a Ph.D. or DBA. HBS also offers summer programs for ambitious undergraduates. Students who like the idea of studying online should explore the schools HBX online programs, which incorporate active learning and the case method learning model. Tuck School of Business The Tuck School of Business was the very first graduate school of management founded in the United States. It offers only one-degree program: a full-time MBA. Tuck is a small business school, and it works hard to facilitate a collaborative learning environment designed to build lifelong relationships. Students participate in a unique residential experience that promotes teamwork while focusing on a core curriculum of general management skills. Their education is then rounded out with advanced electives and seminars. Wharton School Founded more than a century ago in 1881, Wharton is the oldest Ivy League business school. It employs the most published business school faculty and has a global reputation for excellence in business education. Undergraduate students who attend Wharton School work toward a BS in economics and have an opportunity to choose from more than 20 different business concentrations. Graduate students can enroll in one of several MBA programs. Wharton also offers interdisciplinary programs, executive education, and Ph.D. programs. Minority students who are still in high school should check out Whartons pre-college LEAD program. Yale School of Management Yale School of Management prides itself on educating students for leadership positions in every sector of society: public, private, nonprofit, and entrepreneurial. Programs are integrated, combining fundamental core courses with unlimited elective choices. Graduate students can choose from a range of programs at the graduate level, including executive education, MBA programs, a Master of Advanced Management, Ph.D. programs, and joint degrees in business and law, medicine, engineering, global affairs, and environmental management, among others. Yale School of Management does not award undergraduate degrees, but second-, third-, and fourth-year university students (as well as recent graduates) can participate in Yale SOMs two-week Global Pre-MBA Leadership Program.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

VII Hazardous Chemicals Multiple choice and two essay questions

VII Hazardous Chemicals Multiple choice and two questions - Essay Example In case the material does not drip but remains at the immediate site of combustion, they thermally decompose and ignites spreading the fire (Meyer, 2010). When polymeric material burn, they decompose producing a considerable amount of gases and vapour. As the decomposition process continues, the gas might migrate and accumulate elsewhere especially near the ceiling. Here, they mix with atmospheric air then ignite causing the flame to spread further. Through a phenomenon called flashover, decomposition of a polymer can be caused by heat conducted, or radiated from another point. Combustible gases produced by thermal decomposition ignites and spread the fire to other room or sections. At flashover, safe exit from a room is not possible, and the living condition of a room are usually unbearable with the rooms temperatures ranging from 600 - 800-degree centigrade (Meyer, 2010). In addition, the vapour and gases produced by polymeric fire are dangerous and fatal. They include nitrogenous, sulfurous gases. A high concentration of carbon monoxide is also produced. If in an enclosed area, the level of these gases soar to a dangerous level within few minutes. The fire may affect areas far away the source. The hot gases and vapour produced can spread by convection through ventilation systems and other openings and end up affecting people elsewhere in the building. Polymeric fire produces a considerable amount of soot that when inhaled draws toxic gases into the bronchi and lungs (Meyer, 2010). Of all the three gases produced, Carbon Monoxide(CO) can be the most dangerous to the Environment, Health and Safety or the Fire Services professional responding to the scene. Once inhaled, the gas combines with the haemoglobin in the blood circulation system and converts into carboxyhemoglobin that causes an ineffective delivery of oxygen to the body tissues. At concentration levels of

Friday, October 18, 2019

Your choice Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Your choice - Research Paper Example hlairet (2009) pointed out the fact that there are quite a lot of practicing nurses who either failed to receive proper education or continuing education on end-of-life care; which clearly explains why most of them have insufficient knowledge and skills on end-of-life care. Often times, these practicing nurses are not prepared to meet the healthcare needs of terminally ill patients with dementia (Regan, Tapley, & Jolley, 2014). As a result, the quality of life of terminally ill patients and their family members is adversely affected. In relation to the nurses’ role in palliative care, this report seeks to determine the best ways to improve the nurses’ competency when managing terminally ill patients. As such, this report will seek to determine barriers that could hinder an effective end-of-life care. This report will also highlight ways on how nurses could practice effective communication such as active listening. All these are necessary to ensure that the nurses will be able to earn the patients’ trust and eventually build a stronger nurse-patient relationship. Informing the readers about the current research findings and trends in end-of-life care could help increase the ability of practicing nurse to improve the quality of life of terminally ill patients and their family members. Several studies managed to identify that lack of education (Todaro-Franceschi & Lobelo, 2014; Schlairet, 2009) or limitations in the core curriculum on issues related to end-of-life care (Hebert, Moore, & Rooney, 2011; Malloy et al., 2006) serve as a barrier behind the ability of practicing nurses to uplift the quality of life of terminally ill patients. Other than limitations in education or training, Reynolds, Drew and Dunwoody (2013) mentioned that the high cost of end-of-life care and patient or family denial can serve as a barrier to end-of-life care. Lastly, Hebert, Moore and Rooney (2011) explained that the inability of the nurses to communicate well with the patients

CHILD TUTORING cASE sTUDY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

CHILD TUTORING cASE sTUDY - Essay Example The children are divided amongst the women depending on his or her age group. I was allowed to choose the grade level I preferred to work with and so I chose second grade. Therefore, I was assigned to tutor in Ms. Sally’s room. The children in this room ranged in age from six to nine years old. I worked with a nine year old African American girl that I will call Kayla. Kayla is in the third grade at a Birmingham public school. When I first met Kayla, I would have never guessed that she was only nine years old. Kayla is a very bright and intelligent child. However, she craves love and attention. I immediately noticed that she had a very firm tone and wanted things done her way or no way. So, I decided to just observe her on the first day, before beginning the tutoring. This allowed me the opportunity to observe her characteristics and how well she worked with other children. I engaged in â€Å"best practices† by using data and collecting information to find a selective approach to building a partnership with her. Kayla has a very distinctive personality and used her superior strength to intimidate others. She would walk in the classroom and demand items from the other children who were intimidated by her. This led me to believe that Kayla had older siblings, family m embers, or friends that treated her roughly. According to Dr. Jane St. Clair, children who act out in this manner are referred to as bullies. â€Å"Bullies usually have a sense of entitlement and superiority over others, and lack compassion, impulse control and social skills. They enjoy being cruel to others and sometimes use bullying as an anger management tool, the way a normally angry person would punch a pillow† (St. Clair, n.d.). I didn’t want Kayla to think I was there to just interview her, so I carefully made conversation and asked questions that gave me enough insight on her background. For example, I told Kayla I had one sister and two brothers. This

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Multicultural Maladjustments Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Multicultural Maladjustments - Essay Example The essay "Multicultural Maladjustments" talks about the people who live amidst two or more cultures and an uncomfortable feeling of being outsiders. This is poignantly brought out in the three books that are discussed, â€Å"The Namesake† by Jhumpa Lahiri, â€Å"Persepolis-2† by Marjane Satrapi and â€Å"Anil’s Ghost† by Michael Ondaatje. All these three books deal with the conflict that results from being between two or more cultures. In â€Å"The Namesake†, it is the struggle for identity of a boy of Indian origin in America that is portrayed, in â€Å"Anil’s Ghost†, the author describes the travails of a young Sinhalese woman, and in â€Å"Persepolis†, the heroine is an Iranian educated in the West. All these characters have one thing in common, which is the feeling of being an outsider among peers. A feeling of perpetual disorientation and discord haunts the lives of the people who are forced by circumstances to live as a p art of multiple cultures. They can overcome this feeling of alienation by consciously trying to become a part of the prevailing culture. The graphic art novel â€Å"Persepolis† by Marjane Satrapi. was originally written in French. A daughter of a noble family of Iran, Satrapi lived a comfortable life in Iran. In 1984, in her early teens, she was forced to flee Iran and study in a school in Austria. She feels like an outsider among her classmates at school but struggles to acquire a sense of belonging.

Balanced Whole System Parenting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Balanced Whole System Parenting - Essay Example This essay investigates the two sides of the argument concerning banning of Red Dye #40 in order to conclude on best scientifically acceptable option. Support for those in favour of banning Red #40 is based on an association of the food colouring with symptoms such as hypersensitivity in sections of the population. It is noted that Red #40 should be banned because of its side effects that include swelling around the mouth and causing hives for those who consume food dyed by the additive. The negative effects of Red #40 have also been experienced in children who have experienced extreme emotional reactions such as hyperactivity after consumption of the dyed food. The reaction is experienced a few hours after taking food with the affected children demonstrating violent disposition or lose self-control (Borg, 2012). Yu and Scherer (2007) support this argument noting elimination of the Red Dye #40 from food has been found to reduce the levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, compulsive beh aviour and emotional difficulties. Additionally, some of the consumers buying this food and beverage with Red Dye #40 might not be aware of the effects even when there are labels indicating presence. Consequently, the most appropriate approach n dealing with the issue is banning Red Dye #40 to stop its sale in food stores. The argument against the banning of Red Dye #40 is based on refutations of some of the grounds used to call for the banning of the food-colouring additive. For instance, removal of Red Dye #40 from food should not be perceived as only means of eliminating hyperactive disorders for concerned children. This is because studies in this area have not been specific when assessing some of the symptoms.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Management Accounting At Hospital Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Management Accounting At Hospital - Essay Example For the laundry supervisor, there was 23 percent of individual contributors, professionals, first-level leaders, and mid-level executives somewhat or likely to leave within the next year. This study shows that employees in Chinese firms are likely to change their job quite often. This is because it is hard for them to stay in the Hospital for a long time. Moreover, studies done by Owens (2006) argue that finding and remaining high qualified laundry supervisors is the greatest problem in the Hospital. Therefore, turnover rates in the Hospital are quite high. This creates room for the prediction that turnover rates in the Hospital’s SMEs may be even higher than the results of this survey. This is because SMEs are more informal and unstable than MNCs. (Owens, 2006, p. 71). Hence, it is necessary to research the aspects that could influence turnover in SMEs. In Chinese manufacturing firms, voluntary employee turnover is becoming an expensive problem. The issue is even worse for SM Es (Owens, 2006, p. 101). If SMEs have the power to compete against the larger ones, working conditions for employees are poorer than larger companies, and poorer working environment would be an obstacle to remaining employees. The characteristics of employment relations in the Hospital’s SMEs are different from State Owned Enterprises (SOEs), Joint Ventures (JVs) or large private the Hospitals (Owens, 2006, p. 112). SMEs have limited resources, both compensation packages and career enlargement, which can be the key motive for high employee turnover rates in SMEs. However, SMEs could remain employees through other methods and do not depend only on compensation packages. According to the hierarchal of needs theory (Owens, 2006, p. 71), human beings have different levels of needs. There are basic levels which could be fulfilled by extrinsic rewards.

Balanced Whole System Parenting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Balanced Whole System Parenting - Essay Example This essay investigates the two sides of the argument concerning banning of Red Dye #40 in order to conclude on best scientifically acceptable option. Support for those in favour of banning Red #40 is based on an association of the food colouring with symptoms such as hypersensitivity in sections of the population. It is noted that Red #40 should be banned because of its side effects that include swelling around the mouth and causing hives for those who consume food dyed by the additive. The negative effects of Red #40 have also been experienced in children who have experienced extreme emotional reactions such as hyperactivity after consumption of the dyed food. The reaction is experienced a few hours after taking food with the affected children demonstrating violent disposition or lose self-control (Borg, 2012). Yu and Scherer (2007) support this argument noting elimination of the Red Dye #40 from food has been found to reduce the levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, compulsive beh aviour and emotional difficulties. Additionally, some of the consumers buying this food and beverage with Red Dye #40 might not be aware of the effects even when there are labels indicating presence. Consequently, the most appropriate approach n dealing with the issue is banning Red Dye #40 to stop its sale in food stores. The argument against the banning of Red Dye #40 is based on refutations of some of the grounds used to call for the banning of the food-colouring additive. For instance, removal of Red Dye #40 from food should not be perceived as only means of eliminating hyperactive disorders for concerned children. This is because studies in this area have not been specific when assessing some of the symptoms.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Relience Insurance Essay Example for Free

Relience Insurance Essay Reliance Insurance Company, now officially known as Reliance Insurance Company [in Liquidation], was founded in Philadelphia in 1817. In October 2005, Reliance Insurance Company had taken place in India. Reliance Life Insurance Company Limited is an associate company of reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Reliance Capital Limited is one of India’s leading private sectors. Reliance capital has interests in an asset management and mutual funds, stock broking, life and general insurance’ proprietary investments’ private equity and other activities in financials service. Reliance Group also has presence in Communications, Energy, Natural + interests. Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd. is fast emerging as one of the biggest general insurance companies in India. The company offers over 95 insurance products for both corporate and individual customers. The distribution network of Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd. extends 200 branch offices spread across 172 cities in 22 states in India. furnishes information on Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd. Risks Covered by Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd.: Reliance General Insurance offers coverage for all the accidental happenings, producing monetary loss or loss of life. It also includes risks of an individual, or a group. Reliance General Insurance offers coverage in case of: †¢Financial loss of the insured †¢Measurable or tangible monetary loss †¢Legal object of the insurance contract Advantages of Insuring with Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd.: Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd offers you a number of advantages. furnishes information on Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd. Some of the advantages of using Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd are †¢Speedy claims settlement through country wide reach †¢Free towing facility for insured vehicles in case of an accident in all metropolitan cities in India †¢Cashless claims settlement in preferred garages of the policy holder. †¢Reliance General Insurance Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd has tie-ups with leading TPAs and hospitals offering cashless facilities, ensuring hassle free returns †¢Easy and prompt E intimation facility Claim Procedure in Reliance General Insurance: The policy holder needs to know the claim process and the different kinds of insurance. furnishes information on Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd. Claim Procedure in Reliance General Insurance falls into three broad categories: * Theft claims * Own damage claims * Third party claim Information Required for Claiming Policy at Reliance General Insurance: The insurer or policy holder needs to provide the following details, when he or she is claiming for insurance. * Full name of the Insured * the contact details of the policy holder * Policy number * Nature of loss * Place of loss or accident site (in case of accident) * Contact details of insured person (if in case the person intimating the claim is not insured) WHAT IS INSURANCE? Insurance is a specialized type of contract. It is an agreement between two parties one party is insurance company who takes the insurance of other party known as insured party. Premium is consideration of Contract of the insurance. The insurer issues a document in writing in the name of the insured which is called policy. It includes terms and conditions of the insurance contract. The insurer has to pay a certain amount to the insured, if uncertain event takes place after taking the insurance and before the expiry of the policy NEEDS FOR INSURANCE:- Human life is a full of uncertainty and therefore ,there is a need for insurance if there no uncertainty there is no need for insurance .If one can predict the forthcoming dangers ,he can take a proper action and face the crisis . However, death, disaster and  dangers cannot be predicted and hence the insurance is needed. Insurance does not protect the assets. It also does not prevent the losses due to the perils. The perils cannot be avoided by taking the insurance ,but it compensate the losses caused due to the perils which are uncertain . The insurance companies play an important role of implementing the concept of insurance. They collect the premium in advance and create the fund out of which the losses incurred by few a insured people are compensated . Thus the variable need of life insurance can be: (a) Protection of the interest of the family members. (b)Provision for education and marriage of children. (c) Post-retirement income for self and family members. The general insurance helps to protect capital employed in industry and economic activity. Life insurance has become the main vehicle for carrying the social security to the public and the weaker section. Life insurance business is complimentary to the government efforts in social management. LIFE INSURANCE:- Life insurance business was entirely in the hands of LIC till 1999. In late 1999, the government of India allowed the opening up of the insurance sector to private parties by passing the insurance regulatory and development authority (IRDA).foreign companies are also allowed to invest up to 26 percent of equity stake in the insurance sector in the India. The market share of reliance insurance company is 0.47%. Following are the basic types of policies:- (a) Term assurance (b)Endowment product (c)Whole life insurance (d)Money- back policies (e)Annuity plan GENERAL INSURANCE :- General insurance evolved with the evolution of business and the lifestyle of the human beings. Today general insurance cover everything from space expenditure to the voice of the famous singer. general insurance business in India can be traced its roots to the Triton insurance company limited , the first general insurance company established in the year 1850 in Calcutta by the Britishers. The India mercantile insurance ltd. Was set up in 1907. In 1968 the insurance act was amended to regulate investment and set minimum solvency margins and the Tariff advisory committee was set up. Insurance act , 1938 and the general insurance business ( nationalize ) act ,1972 regulate the insurance business. Inter-regulatory committee set up to fix norms on insurance firms Paving the way for guidelines for listing by insurance companies, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) has set up a committee to finalize the norms. This committee, appointed recently, would look at the level of disinvestment that a company could undertake through the stock market. Apart from IRDA officials, the committee also consists of members from the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The committee is headed by IRDA Member. The move would pave the way for the likes of Reliance Life Insurance to list on stock exchanges. The government is set to ease the norms to allow companies to list after five years of operation, instead of the Current 10-year norm. Reliance, which had sought a relaxation, could be the first beneficiary. The sources said that the matter had also been examined by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) and it was decided that SEBI would issue the norms. Apart from Reliance, a host of other life insurers such as HDFC Standard Life and SBI Life could also tap the market. In the run-up to the listing norms, IRDA would issue guidelines related to valuation. The insurance regulator has already issued the disclosure norms for companies. In the past, the government and the market regulator have provided a special dispensation for various sectors, such as information technology, to help companies list. COMPETITORS OF RELIANCE INSURANCE:- 1) LIFE INSURANCE CORPORATION IN INDIA THAT IS (LIC). 2) BAJAJ ALLIANZ GENERAL INSURANCE. 3) ICICI PRUDENTIAL LIFE INSURANCE. 4) ICICI LOMBARD GENERAL INSURANCE. 5) BIRLA SUN LIFE INSURANCE. 6) TATA AIG GENERAL INSURANCE. 7) NEW INDIA ASSURANCE COMPANY. 8) IFFCO TOKIO GENERAL INSURANCE. SOME ONLINE POLICIES PROVIDED BY RELIANCE INSURANCE COMPANY:- CAR INSURANCE: Reliance General Insurance offers an online car insurance portal which is quick and fast and one can purchase the automobile Insurance policy in ten minutes if one has all the information about his/her vehicle. Some of the advantages of the reliance private car Insurance policy are: The online policy is issued within 10 minutes. The online policy eliminates the process of paper work. It gives you complete Insurance cover on and off the road. It covers your car against accidents, theft, natural calamities, etc. Cashless facility is provided. In case of claim, the survey of the vehicle is arranged within 24 hours. TRAVEL INSURANCE: Travel insurance or visitor insurance also known as overseas medical insurance can cover your medical expenses, personal accident, trip delay, loss of passport and many more risk while you travel abroad. At insurance Pandit, we offer a convenient way to compare travel insurance plans offered by reliance insurance company. Not only you can compare plans but also buy and print your travel insurance policy online. Individual Overseas Medical Insurance HEALTH INSURANCE: Health and medical insurance is a recent origin in India. Health insurance covers two types of benefits. One is reimbursement of medical expenses related to specific diseases and the other is related to hospitalization. Health insurance cover operates in two ways- cashless and cash reimbursable ones. The health insurance has changed the way medicine is dispensed and sold in most of the parts of the world. In India, the introduction of the new famous policy â€Å"MEDICLAIM† has made a huge difference to an ordinary citizen’s usage of insurance for medical cover purpose. The mediclaim covers the following expenses: PROFESSIONAL INDEMNITY: General insurance evolved with the evolution of business and life style of living beings. It took shape in the sea going vessels of the early centuries. Today expeditions to the voice of famous singers. General insurance forms the lifeline of several commerce and trade activities.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Human resource management strategies in hsbc

Human resource management strategies in hsbc 1.1 Background Human Resource Management emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a new philosophy of managing employment relations particularly in the USA. From the USA, it developed to the English speaking nations and then to the rest of Europe (Brewster, 1994). Thus, it is a western derived concept that evolved in response to political, economic, legal, and technological changes and one which is highly influenced by the cultural context. It aimed to make firms more competitive, adaptive and strategic in a turbulent environment by introducing innovative practices in employment relations and business operations. It aspires to be fundamentally Unitarian that has little acceptance for the several interest groups, and thus promotes the notion of compatibility of stakeholders interests. In essence, it involves treating employees as valued assets and a source of competitive advantage through their commitment, competency and high quality of performance. With globalisation and increased opening up of economies, the concept seems to attract the other side of the world especially developing countries. Nevertheless and like any other managerial theory, HRM concepts and practices face the dilemma regarding its applicability and transferability to other settings in general, and to non-western or developing countries in particular (Alder and Boyacigiller, 1995). Accordingly, importing the western package and applying it to the context of developing countries without modification or revision is debatable. Universalists argue that importing such a package is applicable with little or no modification, while particularists have a completely opposite viewpoint. This makes us think of the argument put forward by Blunt and Jones (1991) as to whether there would be a mismatch between the imported systems, structures and procedures and the indigenous settings; and whether these concepts could be modified to indigenous sensitivities and particularism? This becomes more complex when one conside rs the multinational firms that operate in a variety of contexts and have to tailor their HR policies accordingly. Linked to this debate, the empirical work argues that socio-cultural differences magnify other factors and contingencies especially in the HRM context because HRM itself is value laden; it deals with people, cultures, values and ideologies which are not identical in nature. However, its adaptation differs even within the western world, as various models evolved along different paths producing different views of HRM. In view of the above, it is evident that managing human diversity across the world has become a major challenge for this era and especially for international organisations whose markets are continuously spreading around the globe. These organisations exist in different cultural contexts which add to the complexity of managing its human resources and thus its operations. Furthermore, they are vulnerable to external factors imposed on them by the host countrys different political, economic and legal systems. In some countries, these multinationals will be highly affected by the attitudes of local individuals, and thus the practice of domestic organisations. This is mainly because of the critical role of culture, which has a great influence over peoples attitudes and behaviours. At the same time, powerful multinationals can influence the host nations economic and political policies and practices. Likewise, they will have an impact on management styles and peoples tastes and lifestyles. Evidently, HRM practices will be influenced by these external factors as these activities are not carried out in a vacuum. In order to be successful in such a complex environment and diverse cultural settings, multinationals must employ and manage their resources effectively and efficiently. Thus, people assigned for international assignments need to acquire various characteristics and traits that will enable them to function in dissimilar environments and cultures. Essentially, flexibility and adaptation are core peculiarities that determine the success of the foreign manager in his mission across the border. This requires them to understand and adhere to the local setting, and hence apply the appropriate HR practice and managerial attitudes that best fit this new complex situation. To this end, I shall explore and study these practices and their applicability in multinationals operating in the UK through a case study of HSBC Plc. a multinational financial institution that aspires to becomes the Worlds local Bank (HSBC, 2010). 1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate HRM practices applicability to multinationals operating in a specific country; the UK. This is an attempt to understand the extent to which the concept is applicable to this country, and thus the level of its efficiency. Moreover, it will examine the impact and role of the political, economic, legal, technological and cultural contingencies in limiting or facilitating the applicability of HRM. Furthermore, it aspires to evaluate the different management styles of expatriates and local managers, as well as work attitudes in multinationals operating in the country. 1.3 Research Questions The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate HRM practices applicability to multinationals operating in a specific country; the UK. This is an attempt to understand the extent to which the concept is applicable to this country, and thus the level of its efficiency. Moreover, it will examine the impact and role of the political, economic, legal, technological and cultural contingencies in limiting or facilitating the applicability of HRM. Furthermore, it aspires to evaluate the different management styles of expatriates and local managers, as well as work attitudes in multinationals operating in the country. How do HRM practices in the UK organisations influence HRM in multinationals? How do the cultural and other contextual factors influence the HRM practices in the UK? How do the British workers perceive their foreign managers and the role of HRM? How do foreign managers perceive British workers and what do they expect from them? Is there a real difference between the HRM Best Practices advocated in the literature and those practices in multinationals operating in the UK? From the term multinational/s I mean here specifically HSBC Bank which is used in this dissertation as a detailed case study that may provide us with insights into the practices of multinational organisations in the UK. 1.4 Research Methodology According to Kane and OReilly-De Brun (2001). methodology provides an overall framework and implementation strategy to conceptualise and conduct an inquiry and construct scientific knowledge (Page 2). To complete most medium to large scale research careful planning is needed. A clear and well thought research plan is therefore necessary for the success of this research project. This study can be categorised as explanatory as it attempts to understand the phenomenon rather than to create a theory (Kane and OReilly-De Brun, 2001). The logic of reasoning, followed in this thesis is Retroductive, which attempts to overcome the pitfalls of both inductive and deductive research processes. It uses a predictive theory but sees it as a conceptualisation rather than an ordering framework as considered in deduction (Yin, 1994). There are various research methods being used in social science research. The most commonly used ones are; experimental studies, cross sectional studies, surveys, longitudinal studies, ethnography, and case study (Yin, 1994). In this research however I shall use single case study method. The main advantage of case study is its applicability to real-life, contemporary human situations and its public accessibility through written reports. Other benefits include that the use of a single case provides greater opportunity for depth of evidence and data. It also allows studying several contexts within the same case. In limited time this approach is most productive approach (Voss et al, 2002). Yin (1994) identified six different data collection methods for case study research. These include , physical artefacts, interviews, participant observation, direct observations, documents and archival records. In this research however I shall be using documents and archival records; which are most relevant to any case study research (Yin, 1994). These include; administrative documents, organisational reports, progress and written reports of event, formal studies, books, news papers, journal articles, and mass media articles. Data used for this research is mainly qualitative and is collected from secondary resources only. Secondary data is the data which already exists in documented sources. This includes data from published articles, reports etc. This is a cost effective and quick method, which can help researcher to identify the gaps in literature, and to get back ground information. 1.5 Literature Review Any organisation, from small firms to giant corporations, from service companies to hi-tech organisations, engages in human resource management activities. It needs to utilise its resources effectively in order to achieve its objectives and targets. Most probably, human resources in the work place in an issue of vital concern to all managers, and is the most important resource which employs all other resources to produce the desired outcome of the organisation. Thus the effective deploying of employees is a key element which will add to the competitive advantage of the firm. This means that the Personnel Management is an industry that existed since people started organizing themselves to achieve tasks (Molander, 1999). However, as globalisation and growing economic interdependence among nations emerge, together with rapid socio-economic changes, strong competition among organisations takes place, where the management of people increasingly became a vital issues in organisations. Therefore Personnel Management has to ensure that personnel policies and practices are geared to the objectives and strategy of the organisation in order to cope with the turbulent environment and respond to the new business needs along with the external threats from increasing competition. Consequently, this entails perpetual development and change of personnel management. In this respect the language of Human Resource Management has emerged to translate a new term for the management of employees in this active and changing world. However, the literature demonstrates a debate about the ambiguity of differentiating personnel from human resource management. Hendry (2005:55) states that Human Resource Management has gained ra pid and widespread acceptance as a new term for managing employment. It remains, however; an ambiguous concept. People question whether it is any different from the traditional personnel management, nor it is clear what it consists in practice. Some scholars however argue that HRM is an evolution of the process of personnel management (PM) and not a new theory of management employees, for example according to Torrington and Hall (1998:3): personnel management is experiencing the biggest change in its history. Many commentators believed that the arrival of human resource management was to be the greatest change in emphasis, but that was no more than re-thinking the process inside the organisation... Similarly Guest (2007) also supports this notion by saying that label has changed whilst the content continues to be the same. On the other hand, other writers attempt to make a distinction between HRM and PM. Hendry and Pettigrew (2000:25) state that HRM is then a perspective on personnel management, not personnel management itself. Additionally, they argue that the strategic character of HRM is distinctive. Underpinning this distinction, Legge (1995) identifies three features differentiating HRM from PM where the former is concerned with managerial staff and promotes integrated line management activities, with more focus on senior management being involved in the management of culture. This discussion indicates that the empirical work has different perspectives on viewing similarities and differences between personnel and human resource management. 1.5.1 Definition of HRM IHRM Is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. This definition emphasizes the vital role of employment management to attain competitive advantage through strategic employment of proficient and committed employees, along with integrating HRM practices, culture and structure of an organisation. According to Schuler (1992:18) Strategic Human Resource Management is largely about integration and adaptation. Its concern is to ensure that: (1) human resources (HR) management is fully integrated with the strategy and strategic needs of the firm; (2) HR policies cohere both across policy areas and across hierarchies; and (3) HR practices are adjusted, accepted, and used by line managers and employees as part of their everyday work. This definition stresses the strategic approach to the management of human resources. It also implies integration of HRM with the organisational strategy, where HR policies cohere across all levels in the firm, and adaptation of HR practices by workers and line managers. Many other authors as well agree that HRM is a strategic function e.g. Mackay and Torrington (2006:178): Strategic HRM can be defined as the overall and coherent long-term planning and shorter ter management, control and monitoring of an organisations human resources so as to gain from them the maximum added value and to best position them to achieve the organisations corporate goals and mission. Evidently, the stress here is on long and short term HRM, and utilizing the workforce to produce value to the firm and attain organisational objectives. Further and more recent work of Storey (2002), Armstrong (2000) and Boxall and Purcell (2003) is also consistent with the notion that HRM is strategic in nature. In view of the above, it can be noted that definitions focus on the employees as core value to the organisation that will add to its competitive advantage. However, this makes us question to what extent this emphasis is applied in real practice, taking into consideration that HRM does not pay attention to the issue of sensitivity in the context in which it exists. Apparently, this issue of awareness and appreciation to the context is tackled more by IHRM as will be demonstrated below. Having identified HRM, it is important to highlight how IHRM us defined in the literature. IHRM refers to activities undertaken by international organisations to utilise its human resources effectively. Those activities include procurement; allocation and utilisation (Dowling et al, 1999). A similar understanding is echoed by Harris et al (2003:129) in saying that: International HRM examines the way in which international organisations manage their human resources in the different national contexts in which they operate. Accordingly, IHRM engages in more HR activities and is involved in further complexities for operating in different countries and dealing with a diversity of workforce from various nationalities. Moreover, multination organisations face the challenges of multiculturalism which means managing people from different cultural backgrounds. Additionally, international firms are involved in operating in diverse multiple markets. Therefore the need for a broader perspective is essential as it is crucial for the success of the international mission. 1.5.2 HR practices in the National and International Context In this section I shall focus on some of the major HRM practices and activities which both the HRM professionals and line managers are expected to get involved in. We will address these activities in the national and international context, as the basic HRM practices remain when functioning abroad but with added complexity. These core activities are recruitment and selection, training and development, process management and reward management. Recruitment and Selection in the National and International Context: achieving a competitive advantage can be attained through having highly effective and competent staff, and ensuring that recruitment is in line with corporate strategy. That is a firm does not gain a competitive advantage from HRM practices, per se, but from the human resources that the firm attracts and retains (Delery, 1998:1). Indeed the selected candidates are required to meet the organisations need and have the potential to be motivated to develop and add value to the firm. This core activity undergoes different stages to ensure the viability of the process. The empirical work of many authors such as Molander and Winterton, 2004 and Armstrong, 2001 etc. also promote similar procedures as presented in figure 1. Human Resource Planning Figure 1: Recruitment Procedure According to figure 1, the vacancies emerge from HR planning that stems from the corporate plan. This is followed by a detailed job analysis and then job description that describes the duties involved and what type of a person is needed for the job. Consequently, a person specification is developed including essential and desirable qualities in the potential candidate. At this point, an advertisement for the job is announced either internally of externally to attract appropriate recruits depending on the organisations need and policy. Initially screening and short listing for applications will precede the interview stage. An experienced interview panel is designed for this purpose where line managers and HR specialists are involved. Based on the results of the interview, the final selection is made where the candidate is asked to present his references before the final decision is taken. Notably, recruitment and selection plays a crucial role in the HR function, as any mismatch between jobs and people selected will reduce the efficiency of this function (Forkowski Schuler, 1994). Clearly, the emphasis is on the technical abilities of the candidate which will facilitate his path in the job market. However, it is worth saying that there is no universal model that can be adopted to ensure the efficiency of this process, as organisations in the same country may prefer different methodologies in the hiring practices, thus we cannot argue that there is a general consensus on identifying the hest practice. On the other hand, the practice of recruitment and selection applies to the international setting where the focus is on different essential factors. Training and development are also key tasks undertaken by IIR departments where investment in employee development is greatly emphasised. Accordingly, achieving business goals and individual growth is linked to enhancing the workforce performance through developing their capabilities and skills. Effective training is of paramount importance to the growth and success of the organisation, where the focus is on the quality and not the quantity of the training. Thus, it is directed towards the development of learning organisations and supporting customer care initiatives (Molander and Winterton, 2004). Performance Management in the National and International Context: Armstrong and Murlis (2001:205) define performance management as a process or set of processes for establishing shared understanding about what is to be achieved, and of managing and developing people in a way which increases the probability that it will be achieved in the short and longer term. Inevitably, performance management is a development activity that releases the potential of the employee. Walters (1995) perceives performance management as a process for work improvement and carrying out all activity in line with business goals and objectives. Therefore, employees performance is evaluated against defined jobs that are agreed upon between managers and employees, and where the objectives of the organisation are communicated. ?Furthermore, it is a continuous practice shared between managers and employees to increase job quality and improve individuals competencies (Armstrong and Murlis, 2001). Equally, it is a method for constructive feedback and a means for motivating employees and maximizing their effectiveness and commitment. Consequently, performance management for employees is reviewed continuously where feedback about their strengths and weaknesses is identified in a productive discussion. In this regard, positive findings are reinforced and praised, while performance problems are discussed in a constructive environment and corrective actions are given to employees. Plainly, effective performance management requires HR managers and line managers to be involved in this process which aims at creating a culture of continuous improvement and better performance and results. This activity continues to apply to IHRM and does not stop. Obviously, multinationals have specific expectations from their expatria tes in terms of appropriate outcomes and behaviour that contributes to attaining the organisational goals and objectives. Reward Management in the National and International Context: Armstrong and Murlis, 2001 proposed that reward management is directly linked to motivation and quality performance at the individual and corporate level, and is response to the business needs. However, reward management includes financial and non-financial rewards that provide intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Accordingly, organisations reward employees as they are expecting certain kinds of behaviors including loyalty and commitment, as well as high performance. In return, employees expect to be fairly rewarded for their high achievement in different forms like promotion, salary, benefits and recognition. Therefore, reward management is not only important to recruit new staff, but it is imperative to retain good employees and motivate them, thus encouraging loyalty to the company (Thorpe and Homan, 2001). In view of the above, reward systems are to reinforce Pay for performance or performance related pay that promotes f air and equitable pay based on the individuals performance and contribution towards attaining the organisations goals and objectives. Hence, it encourages employees to strive for higher performance and supports innovation, which in turn all serve to enhance the organisations competitive advantage. Clearly, firms are flexible in adopting different reward systems that fit and meet both the needs of the individual and the organisation, and to assure continuous improvement at all levels. These systems are to be reviewed regularly to ensure they are providing value for money and that pay levels are competitive. Indeed, an organisation, before moving towards any reward system, has to identify why it wants to move towards this approach. Likewise, it must consider what kind of people it wants to attract and retain, and what competencies and skills are required in these individuals. Simply put, what values does the organisation want to reinforce and what reward practices does it want t integ rate in order to encourage to the desire behaviour and performance (Perkins and Hendry, 1999). On the contrary, reward management is a vital issue when crossing the borders. It encompasses more knowledge about the employment and taxation laws, customs, and employment practices in various countries. Clearly, each country is unique in its systems and regulations, and international organisations need to adapt to the local environment. Having explained these practices as they appeared in the literature review will help us to understand if there is a real difference between them and those practiced by multinationals operating in the UK as will be discussed in chapter five by analysing the case of HSBC Plc. 1.4 Organisation of Study This dissertation is organised into six chapters. Chapter one starts by introducing this study with a general discourse of HRM and its origins that were found in a western context. In the overview, it discusses the factors influencing HRM practices and particularly when applied in an international context. After this overview, it describes the aims and objectives, the methodology and the limitations and organisation of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review of human resource management. It commences with a general overview of HRM, similarities and differences between HRM and personnel management as approached and perceived by different authors. This chapter then provides a definition of HRM and international human resource management (IHRM). It discusses what the literature promotes as best practices related to recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, and reward management in the national and international contexts. In addition, the influence of culture and the other contextual factors on these practices are demonstrated, where the issues of sensitivity when implementing these practices globally are pointed out. Chapter three describes the methodology of this study and the data sources used. Furthermore, additional resources like accessing different websites on the World Wide Web, and getting information from organisational reports were utilised. Nevertheless, the author supplements this study with his own knowledge of the country as well. Chapter four introduces a historical background about the UK, together with the environmental factors including the political, economic, legal, technological, and cultural elements that have an impact on the business in this country. Each factor is analysed in the broader perspective and then is narrowed down to explore their implications for multinationals operating in the country. This is to examine their effect on the functionality of the HRM practices, and hence assess their impact on managerial attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, the cultural dimensions affecting work practices in general and HRM activities in particular are addressed in order to serve the objectives of this research. Chapter Five examines the applicability of HRM practices in multinationals in the UK using the case of HSBC plc. It analyses these practices and highlights the case for and against such applicability. The chapter goes on to investigate the local workers attitudes to work, as well as their views of international managers and what they expect from them. Chapter six synthesizes and summarises the main concepts and various debates reviewed in the preceding chapters. It will reflect on some of the challenges which the author considers as main issues that need to be addressed by professionals working in the international arena and mainly at the HSBC Plc. 3.6 Limitations The biggest problem in this study is that the literature on the modern management in HSBC is limited. Especially from the academic, reputable and peer reviewed sources there are hardly any studies that can be used in this case. This made the research particularly difficult within short time and little budget. The analysis therefore, almost exclusively relies on the secondary data collected through sources listed above. The single case study method also has its inherent limitations, e.g. it is questionable to what extent the results obtained can be generalised and what inference can be made to the wider body of knowledge. References Adler, N.J. and Boyacigiller, N. (1995) Going Beyond Traditional human Resource Armstrong, M. (2000) Strategic Human Resource Management. A Guide To Action, Kogan Page. Armstrong, M. (2001) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 8t edn, Kogan Page. Armstrong, M. and Murlis, H. (2001) Reward Management: A Handbook Of Remuneration, Strategy Practice, (5ed), Kogan Page Limited. Blunt, P. and Jones, M.L. (1991) Editorial: Human Resource Management in Developing Countries, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.2, Iss.1, pp.3-5. Boxall, P. and Purcell, J. (2003) Strategy and Human Resource Management, Palgrave Macmillan. ?Delery, J.E. 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